JAVA—咖啡馆

——欢迎访问rogerfan的博客,常来《JAVA——咖啡馆》坐坐,喝杯浓香的咖啡,彼此探讨一下JAVA技术,交流工作经验,分享JAVA带来的快乐!本网站部分转载文章,如果有版权问题请与我联系。

BlogJava 首页 新随笔 联系 聚合 管理
  447 Posts :: 145 Stories :: 368 Comments :: 0 Trackbacks

在学习任何东西之前,最重要的是培养兴趣,Groovy世界最耀眼的技术之一--Grails相信大家早已耳闻,我将通过Grails实战系列文章向您展现Grails的迷人风采,使您感受到Grails的魅力,以至疯狂地爱上Grails,并坠入Groovy的爱河。学Groovy,Grails与学Java一样,在实战之前需要搭建开发环境,您可以在 Groovy轻松入门--搭建Groovy开发环境 学习到如何搭建Groovy环境,之后我会讲一下如何搭建Grails环境,然后手把手地写个Demo程序告终,我还会抽空写篇“Groovy轻松入门--Grails实战之进阶篇”

一,搭建Grails环境

 

0,下载Grails( http://dist.codehaus.org/grails/grails-bin-0.4.2.zip ,请留意朝花夕拾——Groovy & Grails中的“最新版本”提示)并解压到自己指定位置(我的位置是D:DMY_DEVgrails)

1,设置环境变量GRAILS_HOME(注意大写),过程与“设置环境变量GROOVY_HOME”相似。

2,将%GRAILS_HOME%bin添加到环境变量path中,过程与“将GROOVY_HOME目录下的bin追加到环境变量path中”相似。

(如果只想进行Grails开发,可以不设GROOVY_HOME)

二,创建Grails Demo程序

0,打开“命令行”,选择当前目录(我的为D:Tempgrails_apps),在黑底白字的窗口中输入“grails create-app demo”,不包括双引号“”,在您的屏幕中可以看到类似下面的输出结果:

D:Tempgrails_apps>grails create-app demo
            Welcome to Grails 0.4.2 - http://grails.org/
            Licensed under Apache Standard License 2.0
            Grails home is set to: D:DMY_DEVgrails
            Base Directory: D:Tempgrails_apps
            Environment set to production
            Note: No plugin scripts found
            Running script D:DMY_DEVgrailsscriptsCreateApp.groovy
            [mkdir] Created dir: D:Tempgrails_appsdemosrc
            [mkdir] Created dir: D:Tempgrails_appsdemosrcjava
            [mkdir] Created dir: D:Tempgrails_appsdemosrcgroovy
            [mkdir] Created dir: D:Tempgrails_appsdemosrctest
            [mkdir] Created dir: D:Tempgrails_appsdemograils-app
            [mkdir] Created dir: D:Tempgrails_appsdemograils-appcontrollers
            [mkdir] Created dir: D:Tempgrails_appsdemograils-appservices
            [mkdir] Created dir: D:Tempgrails_appsdemograils-appdomain
            [mkdir] Created dir: D:Tempgrails_appsdemograils-apptaglib
            [mkdir] Created dir: D:Tempgrails_appsdemograils-apputils
            [mkdir] Created dir: D:Tempgrails_appsdemograils-appviews
            [mkdir] Created dir: D:Tempgrails_appsdemograils-appviewslayouts
            [mkdir] Created dir: D:Tempgrails_appsdemograils-appi18n
            [mkdir] Created dir: D:Tempgrails_appsdemograils-appconf
            [mkdir] Created dir: D:Tempgrails_appsdemograils-tests
            [mkdir] Created dir: D:Tempgrails_appsdemoscripts
            [mkdir] Created dir: D:Tempgrails_appsdemoweb-app
            [mkdir] Created dir: D:Tempgrails_appsdemoweb-appjs
            [mkdir] Created dir: D:Tempgrails_appsdemoweb-appcss
            [mkdir] Created dir: D:Tempgrails_appsdemoweb-appimages
            [mkdir] Created dir: D:Tempgrails_appsdemoweb-appWEB-INFclasses
            [mkdir] Created dir: D:Tempgrails_appsdemoweb-appMETA-INF
            [mkdir] Created dir: D:Tempgrails_appsdemolib
            [mkdir] Created dir: D:Tempgrails_appsdemospring
            [mkdir] Created dir: D:Tempgrails_appsdemohibernate
            [copy] Copying 2 files to D:Tempgrails_appsdemo
            [copy] Copying 2 files to D:Tempgrails_appsdemoweb-appWEB-INF
            [copy] Copying 1 file to D:Tempgrails_appsdemoweb-appWEB-INF
            [copy] Copying 1 file to D:Tempgrails_appsdemoweb-appWEB-INF
            [copy] Copying 5 files to D:Tempgrails_appsdemoweb-appWEB-INFtld
            [copy] Copying 119 files to D:Tempgrails_appsdemoweb-app
            [copy] Copying 1 file to D:Tempgrails_appsdemograils-appconf
            [copy] Copying 1 file to D:Tempgrails_appsdemograils-appconf
            [copy] Copying 1 file to D:Tempgrails_appsdemograils-appconf
            [copy] Copying 7 files to D:Tempgrails_appsdemograils-app
            [mkdir] Created dir: D:Tempgrails_appsdemopluginscoregrails-apptaglib
            [mkdir] Created dir: D:Tempgrails_appsdemopluginscoregrails-apputils
            [copy] Copying 7 files to D:Tempgrails_appsdemopluginscoregrails-app
            taglib
            [copy] Copying 3 files to D:Tempgrails_appsdemopluginscoregrails-app
            utils
            [copy] Copying 1 file to D:Tempgrails_appsdemospring
            [copy] Copying 1 file to D:Tempgrails_appsdemo
            [copy] Copying 1 file to D:Tempgrails_appsdemo
            [copy] Copying 1 file to D:Tempgrails_appsdemo
            Created Grails Application at D:Tempgrails_apps/demo
            D:Tempgrails_apps>
            


 

通过“grails create-app”这个命令,Grails自动帮我们创建了开发所需的工程环境。其实您现在就已经拥有了一个可运行的Web应用程序,然后进入demo目录(“cd demo”),输入“grails run-app”,回车,启动这个‘五脏俱全’的程序雏形,打开浏览器,输入 http://localhost:8080/demo ,回车,看到了吧 :) 让我们继续吧,请停止这个程序(Ctrl + C)

1,进入demo目录,在“命令行”中输入“cd demo”,回车,然后再输入“grails create-domain-class User”创建domain class即类似于pojo的pogo,它对应MVC中的Model,不过由Grails自动创建的pogo是空的,需要自己添加属性,约束(constraints)等。输出结果如下所示:

D:Tempgrails_appsdemo>grails create-domain-class User
            Welcome to Grails 0.4.2 - http://grails.org/
            Licensed under Apache Standard License 2.0
            Grails home is set to: D:DMY_DEVgrails
            Base Directory: D:Tempgrails_appsdemo
            Environment set to production
            Running script D:DMY_DEVgrailsscriptsCreateDomainClass.groovy
            [copy] Copying 1 file to D:Tempgrails_appsdemograils-appdomain
            Created  at D:Tempgrails_appsdemo/grails-app/domain/User.groovy
            [copy] Copying 1 file to D:Tempgrails_appsdemograils-tests
            Created Tests at D:Tempgrails_appsdemo/grails-tests/UserTests.groovy
            D:Tempgrails_appsdemo>
            

2,进入D:Tempgrails_appsdemograils-appdomain(这个目录中存放着所有的domain class),打开User.groovy,修改为如下内容:

class   User {
            String name
            String password
            String toString() {
            " $name : $password "
            }
            static  constraints  =  {
            name(blank:  false )
            password(blank:  false , size:  6 .. 16 )
            }
            
contraints这个类变量是定义一些约束的,比如name不能为空白,password不能为空白而且长度在6到16之间(包括6和16)
3,在“命令行”中输入“grails generate-all User”,为User产生所有CRUD操作需要的代码(如控制器UserController.groovy)和页面(如list.gsp),输出结果如下所示:
D:Tempgrails_appsdemo>grails generate-all User
            Welcome to Grails 0.4.2 - http://grails.org/
            Licensed under Apache Standard License 2.0
            Grails home is set to: D:DMY_DEVgrails
            Base Directory: D:Tempgrails_appsdemo
            Environment set to production
            Running script D:DMY_DEVgrailsscriptsGenerateAll.groovy
            Compiling sources
            [delete] Deleting directory D:Tempgrails_appsdemoweb-appWEB-INFgrails-a
            pp
            [mkdir] Created dir: D:Tempgrails_appsdemoweb-appWEB-INFgrails-appvie
            ws
            [mkdir] Created dir: D:Tempgrails_appsdemoweb-appWEB-INFgrails-appi18
            n
            [copy] Copying 2 files to D:Tempgrails_appsdemoweb-appWEB-INFgrails-a
            ppviews
            [copy] Copied 2 empty directories to 1 empty directory under D:Tempgrails
            _appsdemoweb-appWEB-INFgrails-appviews
            [native2ascii] Converting 1 file from D:Tempgrails_appsdemograils-appi18n t
            o D:Tempgrails_appsdemoweb-appWEB-INFgrails-appi18n
            Attempting to load [13] core plugins
            Grails plug-in [i18n] with version [0.4.2] loaded successfully
            Grails plug-in [quartz] with version [0.4.2] loaded successfully
            Grails plug-in [core] with version [0.4.2] loaded successfully
            Grails plug-in [domainClass] with version [0.4.2] loaded successfully
            Grails plug-in [controllers] with version [0.4.2] loaded successfully
            Attempting to load [0] user defined plugins
            Grails plug-in [dataSource] with version [0.4.2] loaded successfully
            Grails plug-in [codecs] with version [0.4.2] loaded successfully
            Grails plug-in [hibernate] with version [0.4.2] loaded successfully
            Grails plug-in [services] with version [0.4.2] loaded successfully
            Grails plug-in [scaffolding] with version [0.4.2] loaded successfully
            Generating views for domain class [User]
            Generating list view for domain class [User]
            list view generated at D:Tempgrails_appsdemo.grails-appviewsuserlist.gsp
            Generating show view for domain class [User]
            Show view generated at D:Tempgrails_appsdemo.grails-appviewsusershow.gsp
            Generating edit view for domain class [User]
            Edit view generated at D:Tempgrails_appsdemo.grails-appviewsuseredit.gsp
            Generating create view for domain class [User]
            Create view generated at D:Tempgrails_appsdemo.grails-appviewsusercreate
            .gsp
            Generating controller for domain class [User]
            Controller generated at .grails-appcontrollersUserController.groovy
            D:Tempgrails_appsdemo>
            

4,在“命令行”中,输入“grails create-controller Login”,创建登陆(login)的控制器LoginController,它对应MVC中的Controller,让它负责登陆相关业务,输出如下:

D:Tempgrails_appsdemo>grails create-controller Login
            Welcome to Grails 0.4.2 - http://grails.org/
            Licensed under Apache Standard License 2.0
            Grails home is set to: D:DMY_DEVgrails
            Base Directory: D:Tempgrails_appsdemo
            Environment set to production
            Running script D:DMY_DEVgrailsscriptsCreateController.groovy
            [mkdir] Created dir: D:Tempgrails_appsdemograils-appviewslogin
            [copy] Copying 1 file to D:Tempgrails_appsdemograils-appcontrollers
            Created Controller at D:Tempgrails_appsdemo/grails-app/controllers/LoginContr
            oller.groovy
            [copy] Copying 1 file to D:Tempgrails_appsdemograils-tests
            Created ControllerTests at D:Tempgrails_appsdemo/grails-tests/LoginController
            Tests.groovy
            D:Tempgrails_appsdemo>
            

5,修改demograils-appcontrollersLoginController.groovy的内容为:

class LoginController {
            def loginService
            def index = { }
            def login = {
            User u = new User()
            u.properties = params
            if (params.name && params.password) {
            def user = loginService.check(u)
            if (user) {
            flash.message = "Welcome $"
            render(view: "ok", model: [user: user])
            } else {
            flash.error = "Invalid $ with $"
            render(view: "login", model: [user: u])
            }
            } else {
            render(view: "login", model: [user: u])
            }
            }
            }
            

大家或许也看到了LoginService这个类,我将在后面演示创建它,这个LoginService类封装了所有登陆相关的业务逻辑,Grails自动将其注入到LoginController中。

6,在“命令行”中,输入“grails create-service Login”,创建LoginService.groovy,输出:

D:Tempgrails_appsdemo>grails create-service Login
            Welcome to Grails 0.4.2 - http://grails.org/
            Licensed under Apache Standard License 2.0
            Grails home is set to: D:DMY_DEVgrails
            Base Directory: D:Tempgrails_appsdemo
            Environment set to production
            Running script D:DMY_DEVgrailsscriptsCreateService.groovy
            [copy] Copying 1 file to D:Tempgrails_appsdemograils-appservices
            Created Service at D:Tempgrails_appsdemo/grails-app/services/LoginService.gro
            ovy
            [copy] Copying 1 file to D:Tempgrails_appsdemograils-tests
            Created ServiceTests at D:Tempgrails_appsdemo/grails-tests/LoginServiceTests.
            groovy
            D:Tempgrails_appsdemo>
            

7,修改demograils-appservicesLoginService.groovy的内容为:

class LoginService {
            boolean transactional = true
            def check(User u) {
            def user = User.findWhere(name: u.name, password: u.password)
            return user
            }
            def serviceMethod() {
            // TODO
            }
            }
            

ok.gsp:

9,修改demograils-appconfApplicationBootStrap.groovy,将一个User实例保存到数据库(grails自带hsqldb和jetty)中,内容如下:

class ApplicationBootStrap {
            def init = { servletContext ->
            new User(name: "demo", password: "123456").save()
            }
            def destroy = {
            }
            }
            

 

10,在“命令行”中,输入“grails run-app”,运行我们的Web应用,输出如下:

D:Tempgrails_appsdemo>grails run-app
            Welcome to Grails 0.4.2 - http://grails.org/
            Licensed under Apache Standard License 2.0
            Grails home is set to: D:DMY_DEVgrails
            Base Directory: D:Tempgrails_appsdemo
            Environment set to development
            Running script D:DMY_DEVgrailsscriptsRunApp.groovy
            Compiling sources
            [delete] Deleting directory D:Tempgrails_appsdemoweb-appWEB-INFgrails-a
            pp
            [mkdir] Created dir: D:Tempgrails_appsdemoweb-appWEB-INFgrails-appvie
            ws
            [mkdir] Created dir: D:Tempgrails_appsdemoweb-appWEB-INFgrails-appi18
            n
            [copy] Copying 8 files to D:Tempgrails_appsdemoweb-appWEB-INFgrails-a
            ppviews
            [native2ascii] Converting 1 file from D:Tempgrails_appsdemograils-appi18n t
            o D:Tempgrails_appsdemoweb-appWEB-INFgrails-appi18n
            Attempting to load [13] core plugins
            Grails plug-in [i18n] with version [0.4.2] loaded successfully
            Grails plug-in [quartz] with version [0.4.2] loaded successfully
            Grails plug-in [core] with version [0.4.2] loaded successfully
            Grails plug-in [domainClass] with version [0.4.2] loaded successfully
            Grails plug-in [controllers] with version [0.4.2] loaded successfully
            Attempting to load [0] user defined plugins
            Grails plug-in [dataSource] with version [0.4.2] loaded successfully
            Grails plug-in [codecs] with version [0.4.2] loaded successfully
            Grails plug-in [hibernate] with version [0.4.2] loaded successfully
            Grails plug-in [services] with version [0.4.2] loaded successfully
            Grails plug-in [scaffolding] with version [0.4.2] loaded successfully
            [RuntimeConfiguration] Configuring for environment: Development
            Building new Hibernate SessionFactory
            Neither 'urlMap' nor 'mappings' set on SimpleUrlHandlerMapping
            64 beans defined in application context [org.codehaus.groovy.grails.commons.spri
            ng.GrailsWebApplicationContext;hashCode=6971605]
            Using MessageSource [org.springframework.context.support.ReloadableResourceBundl
            eMessageSource: basenames=[WEB-INF/grails-app/i18n/messages]]
            Unable to locate ApplicationEventMulticaster with name 'applicationEventMulticas
            ter': using default [org.springframework.context.event.SimpleApplicationEventMul
            ticaster@181d405]
            [copy] Copying 8 files to D:Tempgrails_appsdemoweb-appWEB-INFgrails-a
            ppviews
            [GrailsContextLoader] Grails application loaded.
            Initializing filter 'grailsWebRequest'
            Filter 'grailsWebRequest' configured successfully
            Initializing filter 'reloadFilter'
            Filter 'reloadFilter' configured successfully
            Initializing servlet 'grails'
            FrameworkServlet 'grails': initialization started
            Using context class [org.codehaus.groovy.grails.commons.spring.GrailsWebApplicat
            ionContext] for servlet 'grails'
            Using MultipartResolver [org.springframework.web.multipart.commons.CommonsMultip
            artResolver@1945696]
            Using LocaleResolver [org.springframework.web.servlet.i18n.CookieLocaleResolver@
            1c0bec5]
            Unable to locate ThemeResolver with name 'themeResolver': using default [org.spr
            ingframework.web.servlet.theme.FixedThemeResolver@1984161]
            No HandlerAdapters found in servlet 'grails': using default
            Unable to locate RequestToViewNameTranslator with name 'viewNameTranslator': usi
            ng default [org.springframework.web.servlet.view.DefaultRequestToViewNameTransla
            tor@688d6f]
            FrameworkServlet 'grails': initialization completed in 187 ms
            Servlet 'grails' configured successfully
            

 

11,打开浏览器,输入:http://localhost:8080/demo/login/login ,在Name处输入demo,Password处输入123456,点击‘Login’,跳转到成功页面:

 

Welcome demo
            demo : 123456
            

查看本文来源

posted on 2008-12-04 10:25 rogerfan 阅读(227) 评论(0)  编辑  收藏 所属分类: 【Groovy学习】

只有注册用户登录后才能发表评论。


网站导航: