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Ajax

Asynchronous JavaScript and XML.

Ant

Ant is a software tool for automating software build processes.

Apache HTTP Server

Apache HTTP Server is an open source HTTP web server for Unix-like systems (BSD, Linux, and UNIX systems), Microsoft Windows, Novell Netware and other platforms.

API

An application programming interface (API) is a set of definitions of the ways one piece of computer software communicates with another. It is a method of achieving abstraction, usually (but not necessarily) between lower-level and higher-level software.

ASF

The Apache Software Foundation (ASF) is a non-profit corporation (classified as 501(c)3 in the United States) to support Apache software projects, including the Apache HTTP Server. The ASF was formed from the Apache Group and incorporated in Delaware, USA, in June, 1999.

ASP

Active Server Pages (ASP) is Microsoft's server-side technology for dynamically-generated web pages that is marketed as an add-on to Internet Information Services (IIS). Programming ASP websites is made easier by various built-in objects. Each object corresponds to a group of frequently-used functionality useful for creating dynamic web pages. In ASP 3.0 there are six such built-in objects: Application, ASPError, Request, Response, Server and Session. Session, for example, is a cookie-based session object that maintains variables from page to page. ApplicationTestCenter is also available for load testing.

ASP.NET

ASP.NET is a set of web development technologies marketed by Microsoft. Programmers can use it to build dynamic web sites, web applications and XML web services. It is part of Microsoft's .NET platform and is the successor to Microsoft's Active Server Pages technology.

Assembly

Assembly language or simply assembly is a human-readable notation for the machine language that a specific computer architecture uses. Machine language, a pattern of bits encoding machine operations, is made readable by replacing the raw values with symbols called mnemonics.

AWT

The Abstract Windowing Toolkit (AWT) is Java's platform-independent windowing, graphics, and user-interface widget toolkit. The AWT is part of the Java Foundation Classes (JFC) - the standard API for providing a graphical user interface (GUI) for a Java program.

BASIC

BASIC is a family of high-level programming languages. Originally devised as an easy-to-use programming language, it became widespread on home microcomputers in the 1980s, and remains popular to this day in a handful of heavily evolved dialects. It was devised in 1963 by Profs. John G. Kemeny and Thomas E. Kurtz of DartmouthCollege.

Blog

A blog or weblog (derived from web + log) is a web-based publication consisting primarily of periodic articles (normally, but not always, in reverse chronological order). Although most early blogs were manually updated, tools to automate the maintenance of such sites made them accessible to a much larger population, and the use of some sort of browser-based software is now a typical aspect of "blogging".

Byte-code

Byte-code is a sort of intermediate code that is more abstract than machine code. It is often treated as a binary file containing an executable program much like an object module, which is a binary file containing a machine code produced by compilers.

C#

C# (see section on naming, pronunciation) is an object-oriented programming language developed by Microsoft as part of their .NET initiative. Microsoft based C# on C++ and Java. C# was designed as a language that would provide a balance of C++ with rapid development, Visual Basic, Delphi, and Java.

C++

C++ (pronounced "see plus plus", IPA: /si ː pləs pləs/) is a general-purpose computer programming language. It is a statically typed free-form multi-paradigm language supporting procedural programming, data abstraction, object-oriented programming, and generic programming. During the 1990s, C++ became one of the most popular commercial programming languages.

Callback

In computer science, a callback is executable code that is passed as a parameter to other code. It allows a low level software layer to call a function occurring in a higher level layer. Usually the higher level code first calls a function within the lower level code passing to it a pointer or handle to another function. Then the lower level function in the course of executing may call the passed-in function any number of times to perform some subtask. Another option is that the lower level function registers the passed-in function as a handler that is to be called asynchronously by the lower level at a later time in reaction to something.

CLI

A command line interface or CLI is a method of interacting with a computer by giving it lines of textual commands (that is, a sequence of characters) either from keyboard input or from a script.

CMS

In computing, a content management system (CMS) is a system used to organize and facilitate collaborative creation of documents and other content. A CMS is frequently a web application used for managing websites and web content, though in many cases, content management systems requires special client software for editing and constructing articles. The market for content management systems remains fragmented, with many open-source and proprietary solutions available.

COBOL

COBOL is a third-generation programming language. Its name is an acronym, for COmmon Business Oriented Language, defining its primary domain in business, finance, and administrative systems for companies and governments.

CORBA

In computing, Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA), is a standard for software componentry. The CORBA standard is created and controlled by the Object Management Group (OMG). It defines APIs, communication protocol, and object/service information models to enable heterogeneous applications written in various languages running on various platforms to interoperate. CORBA therefore provides platform and location transparency for sharing well-defined objects across a distributed computing platform.

CSS

In computing, Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a stylesheet language used to describe the presentation of a document written in a markup language. Its most common application is to style web pages written in HTML and XHTML, but the language can be applied to any application of XML, including SVG and XUL. The CSS specifications are maintained by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).

DAO

In computer software, a Data Access Object (DAO) is a component which provides a common interface between the application and one or more data storage devices, such as a database or file. The term is most frequently applied to the Data Access Object design pattern.

Delphi

Delphi is a programming language and software development environment. It is produced by Borland (known for a time as Inprise). The Delphi language, formerly known as Object Pascal (Pascal with object-oriented extensions) originally targeted only Microsoft Windows, but now builds native applications for Linux and the Microsoft .NET framework as well (see below).

Design pattern

In software engineering, a design pattern is a general solution to a common problem in software design. A design pattern isn't a finished design that can be transformed directly into code; it is a description or template for how to solve a problem that can be used in many different situations. Object-oriented design patterns typically show relationships and interactions between classes or objects, without specifying the final application classes or objects that are involved. Algorithms are not thought of as design patterns, since they solve computational problems rather than design problems.

DNS

The Domain Name System or DNS is a system that stores information about hostnames and domain names in a type of distributed database on networks, such as the Internet. Of the many types of information that can be stored, most importantly it provides a physical location (IP address) for each domain name, and lists the mail exchange servers accepting e-mail for each domain.

DSDL

Document Schema Definition Languages (DSDL) is a framework within which multiple validation tasks of different types can be applied to an XML document in order to achieve more complete validation results than just the application of a single technology.

DTD

A Document Type Definition (DTD for short) is a set of declarations that conform to a particular markup syntax and that describe a class, or "type", of SGML or XML documents, in terms of constraints on the structure of those documents.

Eclipse

Eclipse is an open source platform-independent software framework for delivering what the project calls "rich-client applications" (as opposed to "thin clients", this means the clients perform heavy-duty work on the host running the application). So far this framework has typically been used to develop IDEs (Integrated Development Environments), such as the highly-regarded Java IDE called Java Development Toolkit (JDT) and compiler that come as part of Eclipse (and which are also used to develop Eclipse itself). However, it can be used for other types of client application as well, see the popular BitTorrent client Azureus for example.

ECMAScript

ECMAScript is a scripting programming language, standardized by Ecma International in ECMA-262 specification. The language is widely used on the web and is often referred to as JavaScript or JScript, although those two terms have more specific meaning. To understand the relation between ECMAScript, JavaScript, and JScript, you need to know the history of ECMAScript.

Eiffel

Eiffel is a object-oriented programming language which emphasizes the production of robust software. Its syntax is keyword-oriented in the ALGOL and Pascal tradition. Eiffel is strongly statically typed, with automatic memory management (typically implemented by garbage collection).

EJB

The Enterprise JavaBeans specification is one of the several Java APIs in the Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition.

Embedded Java

In discussions of J2ME Java specifications, such as the CDC/CLDC device capability sets and the MIDP profile definition, attention needs to be given to Embedded Java, which additionally requires very specialized, optimized JVMs, and the means to update the installed software and services such as OSGi.

Fortran

Fortran (also FORTRAN) is a statically typed, compiled imperative computer programming language originally developed in the 1950s and still heavily used for scientific computing and numerical computation half a century later. The name is a portmanteau of Formula Translator/Translation. Early versions of the language were known as FORTRAN, but the capitalization has been dropped in newer revisions beginning with Fortran 90. The official language standards now refer to the language as "Fortran".

FTP

The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a software standard for transferring computer files between machines with widely different operating systems. It belongs to the application layer of the Internet protocol suite.

GC

In computing, garbage collection (also known as GC) is a form of automatic memory management. The garbage collector or collector attempts to reclaim the memory used by objects that will never be accessed again by the application or mutator. Garbage collection was invented by John McCarthy around 1959 to solve the problems of manual memory management in his recently devised Lisp programming language.

Generics

In computer science, generics is a technique that allows one value to take different datatypes (so-called polymorphism) as long as certain contracts such as subtypes and signature are kept. The programming style emphasizing use of this technique is called generic programming.

GNU

GNU is a recursive acronym for "GNU's Not Unix". The GNU project was announced in 1983 by Richard Stallman with the goal of creating a complete UNIX-compatible operating system -- called the GNU system or simply GNU -- that is free software, meaning that users are allowed to copy, modify and redistribute it. The GNU project is now carried out under the auspices of the Free Software Foundation (FSF). The correct pronunciation of GNU is g'noo (IPA: /gnu/), with a hard "g", to distinguish it from the word new and for humorous effect; some individuals pronounce it identically to "new", but this practice causes confusion. According to Stallman, the name was inspired by various plays on words, including the song I'm a gnu.

Groovy

Groovy is an adjective to describe the state of being 'cool', 'hip', or generally 'awesome'. Groovy is also an object-oriented programming language designed for the Java platform as an alternative to Java with features from Python, Ruby and Smalltalk.

GUI

A graphical user interface (or GUI, sometimes pronounced "gooey") is a method of interacting with a computer through a metaphor of direct manipulation of graphical images and widgets in addition to text.

Hibernate

Hibernate (sometimes referred to as H8) is an Object-relational mapping (ORM) solution for the Java language. It is free, open source software that is distributed under the LGPL. Hibernate was developed by a team of Java software developers around the world lead by Gavin King. It provides an easy to use framework for mapping an object-oriented domain model to a traditional relational database.

HTML

In computing, HyperText Markup Language (HTML) is a markup language designed for the creation of web pages and other information viewable in a browser. HTML is used to structure information -- denoting certain text as headings, paragraphs, lists and so on -- and can be used to define the semantics of a document.

HTTP

HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is the primary method used to convey information on the World Wide Web. The original purpose was to provide a way to publish and receive HTML pages.

HTTPs

https is a URI scheme equivalent to the http scheme, originally intended to be used with the HTTP protocol, but with added encryption layer. The URI structure is the same, except that URIs begins with "https:" rather than "http:". The scheme was invented by Netscape Communications Corporation to provide authentication and encrypted communication and is widely used on Web for security-sensitive communication, such as payment transactions.

IDE

An integrated development environment (IDE) (also known as an integrated design environment and integrated debugging environment) is computer software to help computer programmers develop software.

IP

The Internet Protocol (IP) is a data-oriented protocol used by source and destination hosts for communicating data across a packet-switched internetwork.

IP address

An IP address (Internet Protocol address) is a unique number, similar in concept to a telephone number, used by network devices (routers, computers, time-servers, FAX machines, some telephones) attached to a network to refer to each other when sending information through a LAN (Local Area Network) or a WAN (Wide Area Network) or the Internet for example. This allows devices passing the information onwards on behalf of the sender to know where to send it next, and for the device receiving the information to know that it is the intended destination.

J2EE

Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition or Java EE (formerly also J2EE) is a programming platform for developing and running distributed multi-tier architecture applications, based largely on modular components running on an application server.

J2ME

Java 2 Platform, Micro Edition, or Java ME (formerly also J2ME), is a collection of Java APIs targeting embedded consumer products such as PDAs, cell phones and other consumer appliances.

J2SE

Java 2 Platform, Standard Edition or Java SE (formerly also J2SE) is a collection of Java Application Programming Interfaces useful to any Java platform programs.

J3D

J3D is a community site put together by a bunch of enthusiastic volunteers to encourage more sharing of information among the members of Java community interested in doing 3D graphics work. Being a volunteer run site, there are always things to do. Please check out our Help Wanted section to see if there is something you can contribute by way of a tutorial or question to be answered etc.

JAIN

JAIN (Java API for Integrated Networks) is an activity within the Java Community Process, developing APIs for the creation of telephony (voice and data) services. (Originally the acroymn stood for "Java™ in Advanced Intelligent Networks" but the name was changed to reflect the widening scope of the project.) Technically, JAIN consists of a number of "Expert Groups", each developing a single API specification.

Jar

In computing, a Jar file (short for Java ARchive) is a ZIP file used to distribute a set of Java classes. It is used to store compiled Java classes and associated metadata that can constitute a program.

Java

Java is a reflective, object-oriented programming language developed initially by James Gosling and colleagues at Sun Microsystems. Initially called Oak (named after the oak trees outside Gosling's office), it was intended to replace C++, although the feature set better resembles that of Objective-C. Java should not be confused with JavaScript, which shares only the name and a similar C-like syntax. Sun Microsystems currently maintains and updates Java regularly.

Java applet

A Java applet is an applet written in the Java programming language. Java applets can run in a web browser using a Java virtual machine (JVM), or in Sun's AppletViewer, a stand alone tool to test applets.

Java Beans

Java Beans are software components written in the Java programming language.

Java Card

Java Card refers to a technology that allows small Java-based applications (applets) to be run securely on smart cards and similar devices. It is widely used in SIM cards (used in GSM mobile phones) and ATM cards.

Java Transaction API

The Java Transaction API is one of the J2EE APIs allowing distributed transactions to be done across multiple XA resources.

Java Web Start

Java Web Start is framework developed by Sun Microsystems that enables starting Java applications directly from the web using a browser. Unlike Java applets, Webstart applications do not run inside the browser, and the sandbox in which they run does not have to be as restricted, although this can be configured. One chief advantage of web start over applets is overcoming many compatibility problems with browsers' Java plug-ins and different JVM versions. On the other hand, Web Start programs cannot communicate with the browser as easily as applets.

Java2D

In computing, Java2D is an API for drawing two-dimensional graphics using the Java programming language. Every Java2D drawing operation can ultimately be treated as filling a shape using a paint and compositing the result onto the screen.

JavaScript

JavaScript, in its modern form, is an object-based scripting programming language based on the concept of prototypes. The language is best known for its use in websites, but is also used to enable scripting access to objects embedded in other applications. It was originally developed by Brendan Eich of Netscape Communications Corporation under the name Mocha, then LiveScript, and finally renamed to JavaScript. Like Java, JavaScript has a C-like syntax, but it has far more in common with the Self programming language than with Java.

JavaSpaces

JavaSpaces is a service specification. It provides a distributed persistence and object exchange mechanism for Java objects. It can be used to store the system state and implement distributed algorithms. It is an implementation of the Tuple spaces idea.

JAXB

Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB) allows Java developers to edit and create XML using familiar Java objects. JAXB is particularly useful when the specification is complex and changing. In such a case, regularly changing the XML Schema definitions to keep them synchronised with the Java defintions can be time consuming and error prone.

JAXP

The Java API for XML Processing, or JAXP, is one of the Java XML programming APIs. It provides the capability of validating and parsing XML documents.

JBoss

JBoss (pronounced Jay Boss) is an Open Source J2EE-based application server implemented in pure Java.

JDBC

Java Database Connectivity, or JDBC, is an API for the Java programming language that defines how a client may access a database.

JDK

The Java Development Kit (JDK) is a Sun product aimed at Java developers. Since the introduction of Java, it has been by far the most widely used Java SDK.

JDMK

The Java Dynamic Management Kit or JDMK is a Java technology that provides a Java API and a collection of software tools for developing and designing JMX based applications. These applications are typically called smart agents as they generally provide an abstraction above the communication layer and may also provide a GUI using Swing or SWT.

JDO

Java Data Objects, or JDO, is a specification of Java object persistence.

Jetty

Jetty is an open source, released under the Apache 2.0 License, 100%% Java HTTP server and servlet container. Jetty is a fully featured web server for static and dynamic content. This means that you do not need to configure and run a separate web server (like Apache) in order to use Java, servlets and JSPs to generate dynamic content. Jetty is an important player in the growing movement of embedded HTTP servers (like jaminid.)

JFC

The Java Foundation Classes (JFC) are a graphical framework for building portable Java-based graphical user interfaces (GUIs). JFC consists of the Abstract Windowing Toolkit (AWT), Swing and Java2D. Together, they provide a consistent user interface for Java programs, regardless whether the underlying user interface system is Windows, Mac OS X or Linux.

JINI

JINI™ (pronounced like genie, a pseudo-acronym: Jini Is Not Initials) is a network architecture for the construction of distributed systems where scale, rate of change and complexity of interactions within and between networks are extremely important and cannot be satisfactorily addressed by existing technologies. Jini technology provides a flexible infrastructure for delivering services in a network and for creating spontaneous interactions between clients that use these services regardless of their hardware or software implementations.

JMF

The Java Media Framework (JMF) API enables audio, video and other time-based media to be added to applications and applets built on Java technology. This optional package, which can capture, playback, stream, and transcode multiple media formats, extends the Java 2 Platform, Standard Edition (J2SE) for multimedia developers by providing a powerful toolkit to develop scalable, cross-platform technology.

JMI

Java Metadata Interface or JMI is a platform neutral specification that defines the creation, access, storage, lookup and exchange of metadata. The JMI specification was defined by JSR 040.

JML

The Java Modeling Language (JML) follows the design by contract paradigm. It admits the specification of Java programs, using Hoare style pre- and postconditions and invariants. The specifications are added as comments to the Java program, which hence can be compiled with any Java compiler.

JMS

The Java Message Service API is a Java Message Oriented Middleware API for sending messages between two or more clients.

JMX

Java Management Extensions or JMX is a Java technology that supplies tools for managing and monitoring applications, system objects, devices (e.g. printers) and service oriented networks. An interesting detail of the API is that classes can be dynamically constructed and changed.

JNDI

The Java Naming and Directory Interface (JNDI) is an API for directory services. It allows clients to discover and lookup data and objects via a name and, like all Java APIs, is independent of the actual implementation. Additionally, it specifies a service provider interface or SPI that allows directory service implementations to be plugged into the framework. The implementations may make use of a server, a flat file, or a database; the choice is up to the vendor.

JNI

The Java Native Interface (JNI) is a programming framework that allows Java code running in the Java virtual machine (VM) to call and be called by native applications (programs specific to a hardware and operating system platform) and libraries written in other languages, such as C, C++ and assembly.

JOGL

JOGL or Java OpenGL is an implementation of OpenGL in Java. It is currently being developed by Game Technology Group at Sun.

JOnAS

JOnAS is an open-source J2EE application server, developed and hosted by the ObjectWeb consortium (ObjectWeb is a not-for-profit European consortium, founded by INRIA, Groupe Bull, and France Télécom). JOnAS is released under the LGPL open-source license.

JSF

JavaServer Faces or JSF simplify the development of user interfaces for J2EE applications using JavaServer Pages.

JSML

JSML is an acronym for the Java Speech API Markup Language Specification. JSML is an XML application and conforms to the requirements of well-formed XML documents. It is sometimes known colloquially as JSpeech.

JSP

JSP or JavaServer Pages, known to some as the Java Scripting Preprocessor, is a Java technology that allows developers to dynamically generate HTML, XML or some other type of web page. The technology allows Java code and certain pre-defined actions to be embedded into static content.

JSP compiler

A JSP compiler is a program that parses JavaServer Pages (JSPs), and transforms them into executable Java Servlets. A program of this type is usually embedded into an application server and run automatically the first time a JSP is accessed, but pages may also be precompiled for better performance, or compiled as a part of the build process to test for errors.

JSTL

The JavaServer Pages Standard Template Library, or JSTL, is a component of the J2EE web application development platform. It extends the JSP specification by adding tags for common tasks, such as XML data processing and internationalization.

JUnit

JUnit is the de facto standard unit testing library for Java programming language. JUnit was created by Kent Beck along with Erich Gamma.It is almost indisputably the single most important third-party Java library ever developed. As Martin Fowler has said, "Never in the field of software development was so much owed by so many to so few lines of code." JUnit kick-started and then fueled the testing explosion. Thanks to JUnit, Java code tends to be far more robust, reliable, and bug free than code has ever been before. JUnit (itself inspired by Smalltalk's SUnit) has inspired a whole family of xUnit tools bringing the benefits of unit testing to a wide range of languages. nUnit (.NET), pyUnit (Python), CppUnit (C++), dUnit (Delphi), and others have test-infected programmers on a multitude of platforms and languages. JUnit has spawned its own ecosystem of JUnit extensions.

JVM

A Java Virtual Machine or JVM is a virtual machine that runs Java byte code. This code is most often generated by Java language compilers, although the JVM has also been targeted by compilers of other languages.

JXTA

1) JXTA technology is a set of open protocols that allow any connected device on the network ranging from cell phones and wireless PDAs to PCs and servers to communicate and collaborate in a P2P manner. 2) JXTA peers create a virtual network where any peer can interact with other peers and resources directly even when some of the peers and resources are behind firewalls and NATs or are on different network transports.

Lisp

Lisp is a reflective, functional programming language family with a long history. Originally developed as a practical computation model (in comparison to Alan Turing's), it later became the favored artificial intelligence research language during the field's heyday in the 1970s and 1980s. The language pioneered the use of tree structures, (S-expressions), automatic storage management, interpreters, and functional programming. Today, Lisp languages are used in many fields, from web development to finance [1], and are also common in computer science education.

MD5

In cryptography, MD5 (Message-Digest algorithm 5) is a widely-used cryptographic hash function with a 128-bit hash value. As an Internet standard (RFC 1321), MD5 has been employed in a wide variety of security applications, and is also commonly used to check the integrity of files.

Middleware

In computing, middleware consists of software agents acting as an intermediary between different application components. It is used most often to support complex, distributed applications. The software agents involved may be one or many.

MIME

Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) is an Internet Standard for the format of e-mail. Virtually all Internet e-mail is transmitted via SMTP in MIME format. Internet e-mail is so closely associated with the SMTP and MIME standards that it is sometimes called SMTP/MIME e-mail.

Mosaic

Mosaic is a web browser (client) for the World Wide Web written at the NationalCenter for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA). Its development began in 1992 and officially ceased on January 7, 1997.

MVC

Model-View-Controller (MVC) is a software architecture that separates an application's data model, user interface, and control logic into three distinct components so that modifications to one component can be made with minimal impact to the others.

MySQL

MySQL is a multithreaded, multi-user, SQL (Structured Query Language) Database Management System (DBMS) with an estimated six million installations. MySQL is open source software available either under the GNU General Public License (GPL) or under other licenses when the GPL is inapplicable to the intended use.

NetBeans

NetBeans is an open-source integrated development environment (IDE) written entirely in Java. Sun ONE Studio (formerly called Forte for Java) is based on this.

Oberon

Oberon is a reflective programming language created in the late 1980s by Professor Niklaus Wirth (creator of the Pascal, Modula, and Modula-2 programming languages) and his associates at ETHZ in Switzerland. The name is from the moon of Uranus, Oberon.

Objective-C

Objective-C, often referred to as ObjC or more seldom as Objective C or Obj-C, is a reflective, object oriented programming language implemented as an extension to C.

OOD

Object-oriented design (OOD) is a design method in which a system is modeled as a collection of cooperating objects and individual objects are treated as instances of a class within a class hierarchy.

OOP

In computer science, object-oriented programming, OOP for short, is a computer programming paradigm.

Open source

Open source is generally a philosophy or otherwise a pragmatic methodology related to production practices that promote access to the origins of the products. Developers or producers used many equivalent phrases before the open source label became widely adopted, as the early Internet years provided a rapid convergence of very diverse production models. With the increase of interactive communities and their direct involvement with the Internet, open-source software yields the most prominent society of open source. The Internet started in 1969 with open standards like the RFCs, but it wasn't until 1998 that open source became a label to denote to software the same effort which began the Internet.

OSGi

The OSGi Alliance is an open standards organization formed by Sun Microsystems, IBM, Ericsson and others in March 1999 (after it was first called the Connected Alliance). Over the past few years it has specified a Java programming language based service platform that can be remotely managed. The core part of the specifications is a framework that defines an application life cycle model and a service registry. Based on this framework, a large number of OSGi Services have been defined: Log, Configuration management, Preferences, Http Service (runs servlets), XML parsing, Device Access, Package Admin, Permission Admin, Start Level, User Admin, IO Connector, Wire Admin, Jini, and Universal plug-and-play (UPnP is now handled by the UPnP Forum).

Pascal

Pascal is an imperative computer programming language, developed in 1970 by Niklaus Wirth as a language particularly suitable for structured programming.

PDA

Personal digital assistants (PDAs or palmtops) are handheld devices that were originally designed as personal organizers, but became much more versatile over the years. A basic PDA usually includes a clock, date book, address book, task list, memo pad, and a simple calculator. One major advantage of using PDAs is their ability to synchronize data with a PC or home computer.

PDF

Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed by Adobe Systems for representing documents in a manner that is independent of the original application software, hardware, and operating system used to create those documents. A PDF file can describe documents containing any combination of text, graphics, and images in a device independent and resolution independent format. These documents can be one page or thousands of pages, very simple or extremely complex with a rich use of fonts, graphics, colour, and images. PDF is an open standard, and anyone may write applications that can read or write PDFs royalty-free.

Perl

Perl, also Practical Extraction and Report Language (a backronym, see below), is an interpreted procedural programming language designed by Larry Wall. Perl borrows features from C, shell scripting (sh), awk, sed, and (to a lesser extent) many other programming languages.

PHP

PHP is a popular open-source, reflective programming language used mainly for developing server-side applications and dynamic web content, and more recently, other software. Originally, PHP stood for "Personal Home Page". Today, the official meaning is the recursive acronym "PHP Hypertext Preprocessor".

PL/SQL

PL/SQL (Procedural Language/Structured Query Language) is Oracle Corporation's proprietary server-based procedural extension to the SQL database language. Languages similar to PL/SQL are included with some other SQL database management systems. Its syntax strongly resembles that of the Ada programming language.

POJO

POJO is an acronym for Plain Old Java Object. The name is used to emphasize that the object in question is not somehow special but an ordinary Java Object, in particular not an EJB.

POSIX

POSIX is the collective name of a family of related standards specified by the IEEE to define the application program interface for software designed to run on variants of the Unix OS. They are formally designated as IEEE 1003 and the international standard name is ISO/IEC 9945. The standards emerged from a project, begun circa 1985. The term POSIX was suggested by Richard Stallman in response to an IEEE request for a memorable name. It is a near acronym for Portable Operating System Interface, with the X signifying the Unix heritage of the API.

Python

Python is an interpreted, interactive programming language created by Guido van Rossum in 1990. Python is fully dynamically typed and uses automatic memory management; it is thus similar to Perl, Ruby, Scheme, Smalltalk, and Tcl. Python is developed as an open source project, managed by the non-profit Python Software Foundation. Python 2.4.2 was released on September 28, 2005.

RAR

In computing, RAR is a proprietary file format for data compression and archiving.

RFC

A Request for Comments (RFC; plurals Requests for Comments but RFCs) document is one of a series of numbered Internet informational documents and standards very widely followed by both commercial software and freeware in the Internet and Unix communities. They are now published under the aegis of the Internet Society (ISOC, an open organization whose mission is developing the Internet for the benefit of people throughout the world) and its technical standards-setting bodies.

RMI

The Java Remote Method Invocation API, or RMI, is a Java application programming interface for performing remote procedural calls. There are two common implementations of the interface, the initial one to be implemented known as JRMP and a version compatible with CORBA. Usage of the term RMI may denote solely the programming interface or may signify both the API and JRMP, whereas the term RMI-IIOP, read RMI over IIOP, denotes the RMI interface over the CORBA IIOP bus.

SAX

SAX is a serial access parser API for XML. Sax provides a mechanism for reading data from an XML document. It is a popular alternative to the DOM API. The name is acronymically derived from "Simple API for XML".

Scripting languages

Scripting languages (commonly called scripting programming languages or script languages) are computer programming languages initially designed for "scripting" the operations of a computer. Early script languages were often called batch languages or job control languages. A script is more usually interpreted than compiled, but not always.

SDK

A software development kit (SDK), is typically a set of development tools that allows a software engineer to create applications for a certain software package, software framework, hardware platform, computer system, operating system or similar.

Servlets

The Java Servlets API allows a software developer to add dynamic content to a web server using the Java platform. The generated content is commonly HTML, but may be other data such as XML. Servlets are the Java counterpart to dynamic web content technologies such as CGI or ASP. It can maintain state across many server transactions. This is done using HTTP Cookies, session variables or URL rewriting.

SGML

The Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) is a metalanguage in which one can define markup languages for documents. SGML is a descendant of IBM's Generalized Markup Language (GML), developed in the 1960s by Charles Goldfarb, Edward Mosher and Raymond Lorie (whose surname initials also happen to be GML). SGML should not be confused with the Geography Markup Language (GML) developed by the Open GIS Consortium; cf, or the Game Maker scripting language, GML.

Silicon Graphics

Silicon Graphics, Inc., commonly called SGI, began as a maker of graphics display terminals in 1982. It was founded by Jim Clark and Abbey Silverstone. The initial products were based on Jim Clark's work with geometry pipelines, specialized software or hardware that accelerates the display of three-dimensional images. SGI was originally incorporated as a California corporation in November 1981, and reincorporated as a Delaware corporation in January 1990.

Simula

Simula is a programming language developed in the 1960s at the Norwegian Computing Centre in Oslo, primarily by Ole-Johan Dahl and Kristen Nygaard. Syntactically, it is a superset of Algol60, adding features that are close to the modern idea of classes and objects, plus coroutines.

SOAP

In Distributed Computing, SOAP is a standard for exchanging XML-based messages over a computer network, normally using HTTP. SOAP forms the foundation layer of the web services stack, providing a basic messaging framework that more abstract layers can build on. SOAP facilitates the Service-Oriented architectural pattern.

Struts

Apache Struts (formerly under the Apache Jakarta project, Struts is now a top level project) is an open-source framework for developing J2EE web applications. It uses and extends the Java Servlet API to encourage developers to adopt an MVC architecture. It was originally created by Craig McClanahan and donated to the Apache Foundation in May, 2000.

SuperWaba

SuperWaba is an exceptionally portable subset of Java that has been optimised for use on devices with small screens. It is extendable and written under the LGPL open source licence. Development can be done under any JDK supporting Java 1.2 or greater, and it is compatible with development environments such as Eclipse, JBuilder etc.

SVG

Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) is an XML markup language for describing two-dimensional vector graphics, both static and animated. It is an open standard created by the World Wide Web Consortium, which is also responsible for standards like HTML and XHTML.

Swing

Swing is a GUI toolkit for Java. Swing is one part of the Java Foundation Classes (JFC). Swing includes graphical user interface (GUI) widgets such as text boxes, buttons, split-panes, and tables.

TCP

The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet protocol suite. Using TCP, applications on networked hosts can create connections to one another, over which they can exchange data. The protocol guarantees reliable and in-order delivery of sender to receiver data. TCP also distinguishes data for multiple, concurrent applications (e.g. web server and email server) running on the same host.

Telnet

Telnet is a network protocol used on the Internet or local area network LAN connections.

TeX

TEX , written as TeX in plain text, is a typesetting system created by Donald Knuth. It is popular in academia, especially in the mathematics, physics and computer science communities. It has largely displaced Unix troff, the other favored formatter, in many Unix installations.

Thread

A thread in computer science is short for a thread of execution or a sequence of instructions. Multiple threads can be executed in parallel on many computer systems. This multithreading generally occurs by time slicing (where a single processor switches between different threads) or by multiprocessing (where threads are executed on separate processors). Threads are similar to processes, but differ in the way that they share resources.

Tomcat

Tomcat functions as a servlet container developed under the Jakarta Project at the Apache Software Foundation. Tomcat implements the servlet and the JavaServer Pages (JSP) specifications from Sun Microsystems. That is to say, it provides an environment for Java code to run in cooperation with a web server. It also adds tools for configuration and management, but it can also be configured by editing configuration files that are normally XML-formatted. Because Tomcat includes its own HTTP server internally, it's also considered to be a standalone web server.

UML

In software engineering, Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a non-proprietary, third generation modeling and specification language. However, the use of UML is not restricted to model software. It can be used for modeling hardware (engineering systems) and is commonly used for business process modeling, organizational structure, and systems engineering modeling. The UML is an open method used to specify, visualize, construct, and document the artifacts of an object-oriented software-intensive system under development. The UML represents a compilation of best engineering practices which have proven to be successful in modeling large, complex systems, especially at the architectural level.

Unicode

In computing, Unicode provides an international standard which has the goal of providing the means to encode the text of every document people want to store on computers. This includes all scripts in active use today, many scripts known only by scholars, and symbols which do not strictly represent scripts, like mathematical, linguistic and APL symbols.

W3C

The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is an international consortium where member organizations, a full-time staff, and the public work together to develop standards for the World Wide Web. W3C's mission is: "To lead the World Wide Web to its full potential by developing protocols and guidelines that ensure long-term growth for the Web". W3C also engages in education and outreach, develops software, and serves as an open forum for discussion about the Web. The Consortium is headed by Tim Berners-Lee, the original creator of the World Wide Web and primary author of the URL (Uniform Resource Locator), HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol) and HTML (HyperText Markup Language) specifications, the principal technologies that form the basis of the Web.

Web portal

A web portal is a web site that provides a starting point, a gateway, or portal, to other resources on the Internet or an intranet. Intranet portals are also known as enterprise information portals (EIP). The building blocks of portals are portlets, which contain portions of content published using markup languages such as HTML and XML.

Web server

The term web server can mean one of two things: 1) A computer that is responsible for accepting HTTP requests from clients, which are known as web browsers, and serving them web pages, which are usually HTML documents. 2) A computer program that provides the functionality described in the first sense of the term.

Wiki

A wiki (pronounced: weekee[1]) is a web application that allows users to add content, as on an Internet forum, but also allows anyone to edit the content. The term Wiki also refers to the collaborative software used to create such a website (see Wiki software). It's a very effective way to exchange information through collaborative effort.

XHTML

eXtensible HyperText Markup Language, or XHTML, is a markup language that has the same expressive possibilities as HTML, but a stricter syntax. Whereas HTML is an application of SGML, a very flexible markup language, XHTML is an application of XML, a more restrictive subset of SGML. Because they need to be well-formed (syntactically correct), XHTML documents allow for automated processing to be performed using a standard XML library — unlike HTML, which requires a relatively complex, lenient, and generally custom parser (though an SGML parser library could possibly be used). XHTML 1.0 became a World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) Recommendation on January 26, 2000.

XLink

The XML Linking Language, or XLink, is an XML markup language used for creating hyperlinks within XML documents. It is a W3C standard.

XML

The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a W3C-recommended general-purpose markup language for creating special-purpose markup languages. It is a simplified subset of SGML, capable of describing many different kinds of data. Its primary purpose is to facilitate the sharing of data across different systems, particularly systems connected via the Internet. Languages based on XML (for example, RDF, RSS, MathML, XHTML, SVG, and cXML) are defined in a formal way, allowing programs to modify and validate documents in these languages without prior knowledge of their form.

XML Schema

XML Schema, published as a W3C Recommendation in May 2001, is one of several XML schema languages. It was the first separate schema language for XML to achieve Recommendation status by the W3C.

XPath

XPath (XML Path Language) is a terse (non-XML) syntax for addressing portions of an XML document.

XPointer

XPointer is a system for addressing components of XML based internet media.

XQuery

XQuery is a query language (with some programming language features) that is designed to query collections of XML data. It is semantically similar to SQL.

XSL

The eXtensible Stylesheet Language (XSL) is a family of languages which allows one to describe how files encoded in the XML standard are to be formatted or transformed.

XSL-FO

XSL Formatting Objects, or XSL-FO, is an XML markup language for document formatting. XSL-FO is part of XSL, a set of W3C technologies designed for the transformation and formatting of XML data. The other parts of XSL are XSLT and XPath.

XSLT

XSL Transformations, or XSLT, is an XML-based language used for the transformation of XML documents. The original document is not changed; rather, a new XML document is created based on the content of an existing document. The new document may be serialized (output) by the processor in standard XML syntax or in another format, such as HTML or plain text. XSLT is most often used to convert data between different XML schemas or to convert XML data into web pages or PDF documents.

 

 

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posted on 2006-06-30 14:01 Jcat 阅读(1756) 评论(1)  编辑  收藏 所属分类: English

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# Soila Lilly
2016-04-18 17:01 | pauldavidsung@gmail.com
Thought-provoking writing , I was fascinated by the details - Does someone know if my business would be able to locate a fillable a form example to fill in ?
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