Java相关英语(不断更新中)

Posted on 2006-03-20 11:43 Computerboy 阅读(828) 评论(2)  编辑  收藏 所属分类: 编程技术

这个是我所收集的和JAVA有关的英语主要是Servlet的(以后不断更新中)
当然了,这个也只是对英语不好的人来说的,高手就不用看了!!!

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Lift-cycle methods    生命周期
calls                 调用
sequence              序列
access                存取
Binding               绑定
provide               提供
getCharacterEncoding  获取字符编码
Attribute             属性
MIME                  多用途网际邮件扩充协议
container             容器
middle layer          中间件
acting as             担当
Custom                定制
Explicit              显示
Implicit              隐式
Varieties             变量
behing-the-scenes     幕后
Critical              重要的


****************************************************************
Servlet's Job

Servlets are Java programs that run on Web or application servers,
acting as a middle layer between requests coming from Web browsers
or other HTTP clients and databases or applications on the HTTP server.

 

Read the explicit data sent by the client

The end user normally enters this data in an HTML form on a Web page.
However,the data could also come from an applet or a custom HTTP client program.

 

Read the implicit HTTP request data sent by the browser

there are really two varieties of data:the explicit data that the end user enters
in a form and the behind-the-scenes HTTP information.
Both varieties are critical.The HTTP information includes cookies,information
about media types and compression schemes.

 

Generate the results

This process may require talking to a database,executing an RMI or EJB call,invoking
a Web service,or computing the response directly.
Your real data may be in a relational database.Fine.
But your database probably doesn't speak HTTP or return results in HTML,
so the Web browser can't talk directly to the database.Even if it could,for secutity
reasons,you probably would not want it to. The same argument applies to most other
applications.
You need the Web middle layer to extract the incoming data from the HTTP stream,talk
to the application,and embed the results inside a document.

 

Send the explicit data (i.e.,the document)to the client.

This document can be sent in a variety of formats,including text(HTML or XML),binary
(GIF images),
or even a compressed format like gzip that is layered on top of some other underlying format.
But,HTML is by far the most common format,so an important servlet/JSp task is to
wrap the results inside of HTML.

 


Send the implicit HTTP response data.

there are really two varieties of data sent:
the document itself and the behind-the-scenes HTTP information.Again,both varieties are critical to effective development.
Sending HTTP response data involves telling the browser or other client what type of
documents is being returned(e.g.,HTML),setting cookies and caching parameters,and
other such tasks.

 

************************************************************

Servlet 的功能
 Servlet 是运行在Web 服务器或应用服务器上的JAVA程序,它是一个中间层,
负责连接来自Web浏览器或其他HTTP客户程序的请求和HTTP服务器上的数据库或应用程序。

读取客户发送的显示数据
最终用户一般在网页的HTML表单中输入这些数据。然而,数据还有可能来自于applet 或定制的
HTTP客户程序。

它们分别为用户在表单中输入的显示数据,以及后台的HTTP信息,两种数据都很重要。HTTP
信息包括cookie, 浏览器所能识别的媒体类型和压缩模式等。

 

 

***********************************************************

 

Sensitive                 敏感
Concuread                 可同时发生的
Absoluteposion            绝对位置
Cursor                    指针
granted                   准许
License                   许可,执照
involve                   包括
indirectly                间接的
directories               目录
ascirbe                   归因于

 


*******

student_survey                 n 学生调查
Separator                      n 分隔符
generates                      v 生成 
CompareTO                      v 比较
Otherwise                      adv 否则,另外
Hierarchy                      n 层次 Class Hierarchy
compatibility                  兼容性
resources                      资源
Data resources                 数据源
Constructs                     v 创建
Functionality                  n 功能
Encodes                        v 编码
specified URL                  特定的URL
Raw                            原始


************************************************************


You call request.getParameter to get the value of a form parameter.
You can also call request.getParameterValues if the parameter appears more
than once you can call request.getParameterNames if you want a complete list of
all parameters in thecurrent request.
In the rare cases in which you need to read the raw request data and parse it
yourself,call getReader of getInputStream.

 

********

你可以调用request.getParameter 可以得到表单参数值。
如果参数多次出现,还可以调用request.getParameterValues.
如果希望得到当前请求中所有参数的完整列表,可以调用request.getParameterNames.
在极少数情况下,可能需要读取原始的请求数据对它自己进行分析,此时可以调用getReader或
getInputStream.


************************************************************03 Servelet 处理表单


Override        覆盖
Resource bundle      资源包
Scheme          模式
Template        模板
Wildcard        通配符
Internationalization      国际化
Authorization   鉴别
Authentication  授权
Native code     本机代码
Manipulation    处理

Java syntax     Java语法
Standardizes    标准化
approach        路径
extensions      扩展
Vendor          卖主,供应商
Establish       建立


JDBC provides a standard library for accessing relational databases.
By using the JDBC API, you can access a wide variety of SQL databases with exactly
the same Java syntax.

********翻译开始

JDBC 提供一套访问关系型数据库的标准库。通过JDBC API ,我们可以适用完全相同的JAVA 语法访问大量各种各样的SQL数据库。


********

 

It is important to note that although the JDBC API standardizes the approach for

connection to databases,the syntax for sending queries and committing t
ransactions,
and the data structure representing the result,JDBC does not attmpt to standardize
the SQL syntax.

*******翻译开始

要主义,虽然JDBC API 标准化了数据库的连接方式,发送查询和提交事务的语法,以及表示结果的数据结构,但JDBC 并不试图将SQL的语法也标准化,了解这一点比较重要。

********

 

So,you can use any SQL extensions your database vendor supports.However,since most
queries follow standard SQL syntax,using JDBC lets you change database hosts,ports,and even database vendors with minimal changes to you code.


*******翻译开始

故而,我们依旧可以使用数据库提供商支持的任何扩展,但是由于大多数查询都遵循标准的SQL语法。因此,在使用JDBC 的情况下,对代码做出很少的修改就可以更改数据的主机,端口,甚至数据库提供商。


*******

Following is a summary;details are given in the rest of the section.

Load the JDBC driver. To load a driver,you specify the classname of the database
driver in the Class.forName method.By doing so,you automatically create a driver
instance and register is with the JDBC driver manager.
Define the connection URL. In JDBC,a connection URL specifies the server host,
port ,and database name with which to establish a connection.

*******翻译开始

下面是一个汇总。
载入JDBC 驱动程序,如果要载入驱动程序,只需在Class.forName 方法中指定数据库驱动程序的类名。这样做就自动创建了驱动程序的实例,产注册到JDBC 驱动程序管理器。

定义连接URL
在JDBC 中,连接URL 指定服务器的主机名,端口以及希望与之建立连接的数据库名。

********
Estblish the connection.With the connection URL, username,and passwrod, a network
connection to the database can be established. Once the
connection is established,
database queries can be preformed until the connection is closed.
Create a Stantement object. Creating a Statement object enables you to send
queries and commands to the database.


*******翻译开始

建立连接
有了连接URL,用户名和密码,就可以建立到数据库的网络连接。连接建立之后,就可以执行数据库的查询,直到数据关闭为止。
创建Statement 对象
创建Statement 对象才能向数据库发送查询和命令。


*************

Execute a query or update. Give a Statement object, you can send SQL stateents to
the database by using the execute, executeQuery, executeUpdate, or executeBatch
methods.

Process the results.When a database query is executed, a ResultSet is returned.
The ResultSet represents a set of rows and columns that you can process by calls
to next and various getXXX methods.

Close the connection. When you are finished performing queries and processing
results, you should close the connection ,releasing resources to the database.


******翻译开始

执行查询或更新
有了Statement 对象后,就可以用excute,excuteQuery,excuteUpdate 或 excuteBatch 方法
发送给SQL 语句到数据库。
结果处理
数据库查询执行完毕后,返回一个ResultSet 。ResultSet表示一系列的行和列,我们可以
调用next 和各种 getXXX方法对这些行和列进行处理。
关闭连接
在执行完查询且处理完结果之后,应该关闭连接,释放与数据库相连的资源。


**************************************************************
**** Cookies

Cookies are small bits of textual information that a Web server sends to a
browser
and that the browser later returns unchanged when visiting the same Web site
of domain.
By letting the server read information it sent the client previously,the site can
provide visitors with a number of conveniences
such as presenting the site the way the visitor previously customized it or
letting identifiable visitors in without their having to reenter a password.


********翻译开始

Cookie 是小段文本信息,由Web 服务器将它发送到浏览器,
之后,在访问同一网站或域时,浏览器又将它原封不动地返回。
通过让服务器读取它之前发送给客户程序的信息,站点可以为访问者提供诸多的便利,
比如按照访问者之前的定制呈现该站点,或让分身已通过验证者进入,不需要再次输入
密码。


************

communicate          通话
dispatch             分布式的
processing           处理
match                匹配
ignored              忽略
overloaded           过载
Furthermore          此外
purposes             目的目标


************************* 05-Servlet 中处理会话 Session

 

Separate       单独、分离
Persistent     持久,稳固
Multiple       多个、多样
Maintaining    维持、维修
Inadequacies   不足

 

****

HTTP is a "stateless" protocol:
each time a client retrieves a Web page,the client opens a separate connection to
the Web server and the server does not automatically maintain contextual
information .
about the client.Even with servers that support persistent(Keep-alive)HTTP
connections and keep sockets open for multiple client requests that occur
in rapid succession, there is no built-in support for maintaining contextual
information.

This lack of context causes a number of difficulties.

*******翻译开始

HTTP 是“无状态”协议:
客户程序每次读取Web页面,都会打开一个单独连接到Web服务器,并且服务器也不自动
维护客户的上下文信息。
即使哪些支持持续性HTTP 连接的服务器,尽管 多个客户请求连接发生且间隔很短时他们
会保持socket打开,但是,它们也没有提供维护上下文信息的内建支持。
上下文的缺失引起许多困难。


*******


For example, when clients at an online store add an item to their shopping carts,
how does the server know what's already in the carts?
Similarly, when clients decide to proceed to checkout, how can the server
determine which previously created shopping carts are theirs?
These questions seem very simple, yet, because of the inadequacies of HTTP,
answering them is surprisingly complicated.

********翻译开始

例如,在线商店的客户向它们的购物车加入商品时,服务器如何知道购物车中已有何种
物品呢?
类似的,在客户决定结账时,服务器如何能确定之前创建的购物车中哪个属于客户呢?
这些问题虽然看起来简单,但是由于HTTP的不足,解决它们却异常复杂困难。

 


***********


There are three typical solutions to this problem:cookies,URL rewriting,and
hidden form fields ,session


****翻译开始

对于这个问题,存在四种解决方案:
cookie,URL重写隐藏的表单域和session

 

 

*********************


initialization parameters        初始化参数
Reference                        引用
Logging                          日志
Encryption                       加密
Chain                            链
executing                        执行
tasks                            任务
Authentication                   压缩
conversion                       转换

 

*******


A filter is a program that runs on the server before the servlet or JSP page
with which it is associated.

A filter can be attached to one or more servlets or JSp pages and can examine
the request information going into these resources

 

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Feedback

# re: Java相关英语(不断更新中)  回复  更多评论   

2006-04-20 10:34 by Harryson
E文还是很重要的,我要学,

# 佩服作者[未登录]  回复  更多评论   

2008-12-24 12:31 by sk
支持,好东西。

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