Decorator Pattern and Adapter Pattern have the same alias name: wrapper. But they face different aspects. Decorator pattern changes the object function, but the adapter pattern changes the interface.
The typical decorator pattern is the java OutputStream, you can use the BufferedOutputStream to wrap it, then get the extra function.
The typical adapter pattern in the BIRT is the ElementAdapter, it can convert any object to an other object.
Decorator pattern must extend the class which you want to wrap, but the adapter class must implements the interface using by the client.
FlyWeight pattern extracts the same part of some different objects, and the part doesn't be changed when these objects changed. String class uses the FlyWeight pattern, jface
ImageRegistry also uses it. FlyWeight can have a interface to get external data, and change the external data's status, but FlyWeight internal status shouldn't be changed.
The Collections.sort() method implementation contains template method design pattern and strategy design pattern, but it doesn't contain the visitor design pattern. The Collections.sort() method uses the merge sort algorithm, you can't change it, but you can change the comparator logic, it's one step of the sort algorithm. So it's a template method pattern, but not a classic implementation, it uses the callback method to implement the pattern, but not extending the parent template class. The comparator class use the strategy design pattern, it not a visitor pattern, visitor pattern have a accept method to operate the element to deal some logic.