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ORACLE SQL性能优化系列 (十一)

ORACLE SQL性能优化系列 (十一)

作者: black_snail

 

关键字 ORACLE PERFORMANCE PL/SQL TUNING

出处 http://www.dbasupport.com



36. 用UNION替换OR (适用于索引列)

通常情况下, 用UNION替换WHERE子句中的OR将会起到较好的效果. 对索引列使用OR将造成全表扫描. 注意, 以上规则只针对多个索引列有效. 如果有column没有被索引, 查询效率可能会因为你没有选择OR而降低.

在下面的例子中, LOC_ID 和REGION上都建有索引.

高效:

SELECT LOC_ID , LOC_DESC , REGION

FROM LOCATION

WHERE LOC_ID = 10

UNION

SELECT LOC_ID , LOC_DESC , REGION

FROM LOCATION

WHERE REGION = “MELBOURNE”


低效:

SELECT LOC_ID , LOC_DESC , REGION

FROM LOCATION

WHERE LOC_ID = 10 OR REGION = “MELBOURNE”


如果你坚持要用OR, 那就需要返回记录最少的索引列写在最前面.


注意:


WHERE KEY1 = 10 (返回最少记录)

OR KEY2 = 20 (返回最多记录)


ORACLE 内部将以上转换为

WHERE KEY1 = 10 AND

((NOT KEY1 = 10) AND KEY2 = 20)


译者按:


下面的测试数据仅供参考: (a = 1003 返回一条记录 , b = 1 返回1003条记录)

SQL> select * from unionvsor /*1st test*/

2 where a = 1003 or b = 1;

1003 rows selected.

Execution Plan

----------------------------------------------------------

0 SELECT STATEMENT Optimizer=CHOOSE

1 0 CONCATENATION

2 1 TABLE ACCESS (BY INDEX ROWID) OF 'UNIONVSOR'

3 2 INDEX (RANGE SCAN) OF 'UB' (NON-UNIQUE)

4 1 TABLE ACCESS (BY INDEX ROWID) OF 'UNIONVSOR'

5 4 INDEX (RANGE SCAN) OF 'UA' (NON-UNIQUE)

Statistics

----------------------------------------------------------

0 recursive calls

0 db block gets

144 consistent gets

0 physical reads

0 redo size

63749 bytes sent via SQL*Net to client

7751 bytes received via SQL*Net from client

68 SQL*Net roundtrips to/from client

0 sorts (memory)

0 sorts (disk)

1003 rows processed

SQL> select * from unionvsor /*2nd test*/

2 where b = 1 or a = 1003 ;

1003 rows selected.

Execution Plan

----------------------------------------------------------

0 SELECT STATEMENT Optimizer=CHOOSE

1 0 CONCATENATION

2 1 TABLE ACCESS (BY INDEX ROWID) OF 'UNIONVSOR'

3 2 INDEX (RANGE SCAN) OF 'UA' (NON-UNIQUE)

4 1 TABLE ACCESS (BY INDEX ROWID) OF 'UNIONVSOR'

5 4 INDEX (RANGE SCAN) OF 'UB' (NON-UNIQUE)

Statistics

----------------------------------------------------------

0 recursive calls

0 db block gets

143 consistent gets

0 physical reads

0 redo size

63749 bytes sent via SQL*Net to client

7751 bytes received via SQL*Net from client

68 SQL*Net roundtrips to/from client

0 sorts (memory)

0 sorts (disk)

1003 rows processed



SQL> select * from unionvsor /*3rd test*/

2 where a = 1003

3 union

4 select * from unionvsor

5 where b = 1;

1003 rows selected.

Execution Plan

----------------------------------------------------------

0 SELECT STATEMENT Optimizer=CHOOSE

1 0 SORT (UNIQUE)

2 1 UNION-ALL

3 2 TABLE ACCESS (BY INDEX ROWID) OF 'UNIONVSOR'

4 3 INDEX (RANGE SCAN) OF 'UA' (NON-UNIQUE)

5 2 TABLE ACCESS (BY INDEX ROWID) OF 'UNIONVSOR'

6 5 INDEX (RANGE SCAN) OF 'UB' (NON-UNIQUE)

Statistics

----------------------------------------------------------

0 recursive calls

0 db block gets

10 consistent gets

0 physical reads

0 redo size

63735 bytes sent via SQL*Net to client

7751 bytes received via SQL*Net from client

68 SQL*Net roundtrips to/from client

1 sorts (memory)

0 sorts (disk)

1003 rows processed

用UNION的效果可以从consistent gets和 SQL*NET的数据交换量的减少看出



37. 用IN来替换OR


下面的查询可以被更有效率的语句替换:


低效:


SELECT….

FROM LOCATION

WHERE LOC_ID = 10

OR LOC_ID = 20

OR LOC_ID = 30


高效

SELECT…

FROM LOCATION

WHERE LOC_IN IN (10,20,30);


译者按:

这是一条简单易记的规则,但是实际的执行效果还须检验,在ORACLE8i下,两者的执行路径似乎是相同的. 



38. 避免在索引列上使用IS NULL和IS NOT NULL

避免在索引中使用任何可以为空的列,ORACLE将无法使用该索引 .对于单列索引,如果列包含空值,索引中将不存在此记录. 对于复合索引,如果每个列都为空,索引中同样不存在此记录. 如果至少有一个列不为空,则记录存在于索引中.

举例:

如果唯一性索引建立在表的A列和B列上, 并且表中存在一条记录的A,B值为(123,null) , ORACLE将不接受下一条具有相同A,B值(123,null)的记录(插入). 然而如果

所有的索引列都为空,ORACLE将认为整个键值为空而空不等于空. 因此你可以插入1000

条具有相同键值的记录,当然它们都是空!


因为空值不存在于索引列中,所以WHERE子句中对索引列进行空值比较将使ORACLE停用该索引.

举例:


低效: (索引失效)

SELECT …

FROM DEPARTMENT

WHERE DEPT_CODE IS NOT NULL;


高效: (索引有效)

SELECT …

FROM DEPARTMENT

WHERE DEPT_CODE >=0;

posted on 2006-02-25 22:33 Vincent.Chen 阅读(130) 评论(0)  编辑  收藏 所属分类: Database


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