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Apache服务器SSL配置

笔者不久前参与了某系统代理服务器配置的研究,查阅了大量关于Apache的SSL配置的资料。本文即是笔者学习这些资料后的经验总结,以Win32版Apache与OpenSSL为例,介绍从创建数字证书到Apache配置的整个过程,希望对读者有所帮助。

Apache是目前最流行的WEB服务器之一,借助OpenSSL库,我们可以在Apache上建立SSL通道,提供SSL连接服务。OpenSSL库除提供Apache的SSL模块外,还提供了一套数字证书工具,可以创建、转换数字证书。

1       环境准备

软件下载

l       Apache:apache_2.2.4-win32-x86-openssl-0.9.8d.msi

l       openSSL:Win32 OpenSSL v0.9.8e

apache_2.2.4-win32-x86-openssl-0.9.8d.msi是一个捆绑的软件包,包含了apache与openssl必选组件,apache的版本是2.2.4,OpenSSL版本是0.9.8d。如不必使用最新的openssl,则仅下载此软件包即可。

软件安装

(1)   运行Win32OpenSSL-0_9_8e.exe安装OpenSSL;

(2)   运行apache_2.2.4-win32-x86-openssl-0.9.8d.msi安装apache。

如果想使用最新版的OpenSSL,则应删除apache安装目录下的libeay32.dll与ssleay32.dll两个文件,迫使Apache使用OpenSSL安装在c:"windows"system32下的两个最新文件。

软件配置

1.3.1            Apache配置

编辑apache的conf目录下的httpd.conf文件,将#LoadModule ssl_module modules/mod_ssl.so前的#删除,使得Apache启动时加载mod_ssl.so模块。重新启动apache,如果看到下列画面,说明mod_ssl.so已经加载成功。

1.3.2            OpenSSL配置

(1)创建证书管理目录与文件;

l       创建C:"CA作为证书管理主目录;

l       C:"CA下创建certs与keys两个目录,存储证书与私钥;

l       C:"CA下创建crl目录,存储证书注销列表文件;

l       C:"CA下创建一个空文件index.txt,存储证书清单;

l       C:"CA下创建一个index.txt.attr文件,内容为unique_subject = no

l       C:"CA下创建证书序列号文件serial,内容为01;

l       C:"CA下创建证书注销列表序号文件crlnumber,内容为01。

(2)编辑OpenSSL的bin/openssl.cnf文件,修改下列内容:

#

# OpenSSL example configuration file.

# This is mostly being used for generation of certificate requests.

#

# This definition stops the following lines choking if HOME isn't

# defined.

HOME          = .

RANDFILE      = $ENV::HOME/.rnd

# Extra OBJECT IDENTIFIER info:

#oid_file     = $ENV::HOME/.oid

oid_section        = new_oids

# To use this configuration file with the "-extfile" option of the

# "openssl x509" utility, name here the section containing the

# X.509v3 extensions to use:

# extensions       =

# (Alternatively, use a configuration file that has only

# X.509v3 extensions in its main [= default] section.)

[ new_oids ]

# We can add new OIDs in here for use by 'ca' and 'req'.

# Add a simple OID like this:

# testoid1=1.2.3.4

# Or use config file substitution like this:

# testoid2=${testoid1}.5.6

####################################################################

[ ca ]

default_ca    = CA_default       # The default ca section

####################################################################

[ CA_default ]

dir      = C:/CA       # Where everything is kept

certs         = $dir/certs       # Where the issued certs are kept

crl_dir       = $dir/crl         # Where the issued crl are kept

database= $dir/index.txt   # database index file.

#unique_subject    = no          # Set to 'no' to allow creation of

                       # several ctificates with same subject.

new_certs_dir= $dir/certs       # default place for new certs.

certificate   = $dir/certs/CA.YOUR.COM.crt     # The CA certificate

serial        = $dir/serial          # The current serial number

crlnumber= $dir/crlnumber   # the current crl number

                       # must be commented out to leave a V1 CRL

crl      = $dir/crl.pem         # The current CRL

private_key   = $dir/keys/CA.YOUR.COM.key    # The private key

RANDFILE= $dir/keys/.rand       # private random number file

x509_extensions    = usr_cert         # The extentions to add to the cert

# Comment out the following two lines for the "traditional"

# (and highly broken) format.

name_opt = ca_default       # Subject Name options

cert_opt = ca_default       # Certificate field options

# Extension copying option: use with caution.

# copy_extensions = copy

# Extensions to add to a CRL. Note: Netscape communicator chokes on V2 CRLs

# so this is commented out by default to leave a V1 CRL.

# crlnumber must also be commented out to leave a V1 CRL.

# crl_extensions   = crl_ext

default_days = 365              # how long to certify for

default_crl_days= 30             # how long before next CRL

default_md    = sha1             # which md to use.

preserve= no          # keep passed DN ordering

# A few difference way of specifying how similar the request should look

# For type CA, the listed attributes must be the same, and the optional

# and supplied fields are just that :-)

policy        = policy_match

# For the CA policy

[ policy_match ]

countryName        = match

stateOrProvinceName    = match

organizationName   = match

organizationalUnitName= optional

commonName         = supplied

emailAddress       = optional

# For the 'anything' policy

# At this point in time, you must list all acceptable 'object'

# types.

[ policy_anything ]

countryName        = optional

stateOrProvinceName    = optional

localityName       = optional

organizationName   = optional

organizationalUnitName= optional

commonName         = supplied

emailAddress       = optional

####################################################################

[ req ]

default_bits       = 1024

default_keyfile    = privkey.pem

distinguished_name= req_distinguished_name

attributes         = req_attributes

x509_extensions    = v3_ca # The extentions to add to the self signed cert

# Passwords for private keys if not present they will be prompted for

# input_password = secret

# output_password = secret

# This sets a mask for permitted string types. There are several options.

# default: PrintableString, T61String, BMPString.

# pkix   : PrintableString, BMPString.

# utf8only: only UTF8Strings.

# nombstr : PrintableString, T61String (no BMPStrings or UTF8Strings).

# MASK:XXXX a literal mask value.

# WARNING: current versions of Netscape crash on BMPStrings or UTF8Strings

# so use this option with caution!

string_mask = nombstr

# req_extensions = v3_req # The extensions to add to a certificate request

[ req_distinguished_name ]

countryName            = Country Name (2 letter code)

countryName_default         = CN

countryName_min             = 2

countryName_max             = 2

stateOrProvinceName         = State or Province Name (full name)

stateOrProvinceName_default= BeiJing

localityName           = Locality Name (eg, city)

0.organizationName     = Organization Name (eg, company)

0.organizationName_default = COM

# we can do this but it is not needed normally :-)

#1.organizationName         = Second Organization Name (eg, company)

#1.organizationName_default= World Wide Web Pty Ltd

organizationalUnitName      = Organizational Unit Name (eg, section)

organizationalUnitName_default   = YOUR

commonName             = Common Name (eg, YOUR name)

commonName_max              = 64

emailAddress           = Email Address

emailAddress_max       = 64

# SET-ex3          = SET extension number 3

[ req_attributes ]

challengePassword      = A challenge password

challengePassword_min       = 4

challengePassword_max       = 20

unstructuredName       = An optional company name

[ usr_cert ]

# These extensions are added when 'ca' signs a request.

# This goes against PKIX guidelines but some CAs do it and some software

# requires this to avoid interpreting an end user certificate as a CA.

basicConstraints=CA:FALSE

# Here are some examples of the usage of nsCertType. If it is omitted

# the certificate can be used for anything *except* object signing.

# This is OK for an SSL server.

# nsCertType           = server

# For an object signing certificate this would be used.

# nsCertType = objsign

# For normal client use this is typical

# nsCertType = client, email

# and for everything including object signing:

# nsCertType = client, email, objsign

# This is typical in keyUsage for a client certificate.

# keyUsage = nonRepudiation, digitalSignature, keyEncipherment

# This will be displayed in Netscape's comment listbox.

nsComment          = "OpenSSL Generated Certificate"

# PKIX recommendations harmless if included in all certificates.

subjectKeyIdentifier=hash

authorityKeyIdentifier=keyid,issuer

# This stuff is for subjectAltName and issuerAltname.

# Import the email address.

# subjectAltName=email:copy

# An alternative to produce certificates that aren't

# deprecated according to PKIX.

# subjectAltName=email:move

# Copy subject details

# issuerAltName=issuer:copy

#nsCaRevocationUrl     = http://www.domain.dom/ca-crl.pem

#nsBaseUrl

#nsRevocationUrl

#nsRenewalUrl

#nsCaPolicyUrl

#nsSslServerName

[ v3_req ]

# Extensions to add to a certificate request

basicConstraints = CA:FALSE

keyUsage = nonRepudiation, digitalSignature, keyEncipherment

[ v3_ca ]

# Extensions for a typical CA

# PKIX recommendation.

subjectKeyIdentifier=hash

authorityKeyIdentifier=keyid:always,issuer:always

# This is what PKIX recommends but some broken software chokes on critical

# extensions.

#basicConstraints = critical,CA:true

# So we do this instead.

basicConstraints = CA:true

# Key usage: this is typical for a CA certificate. However since it will

# prevent it being used as an test self-signed certificate it is best

# left out by default.

# keyUsage = cRLSign, keyCertSign

# Some might want this also

# nsCertType = sslCA, emailCA

# Include email address in subject alt name: another PKIX recommendation

# subjectAltName=email:copy

# Copy issuer details

# issuerAltName=issuer:copy

# DER hex encoding of an extension: beware experts only!

# obj=DER:02:03

# Where 'obj' is a standard or added object

# You can even override a supported extension:

# basicConstraints= critical, DER:30:03:01:01:FF

[ crl_ext ]

# CRL extensions.

# Only issuerAltName and authorityKeyIdentifier make any sense in a CRL.

# issuerAltName=issuer:copy

authorityKeyIdentifier=keyid:always,issuer:always

[ proxy_cert_ext ]

# These extensions should be added when creating a proxy certificate

# This goes against PKIX guidelines but some CAs do it and some software

# requires this to avoid interpreting an end user certificate as a CA.

basicConstraints=CA:FALSE

# Here are some examples of the usage of nsCertType. If it is omitted

# the certificate can be used for anything *except* object signing.

# This is OK for an SSL server.

# nsCertType           = server

# For an object signing certificate this would be used.

# nsCertType = objsign

# For normal client use this is typical

# nsCertType = client, email

# and for everything including object signing:

# nsCertType = client, email, objsign

# This is typical in keyUsage for a client certificate.

# keyUsage = nonRepudiation, digitalSignature, keyEncipherment

# This will be displayed in Netscape's comment listbox.

nsComment          = "OpenSSL Generated Certificate"

# PKIX recommendations harmless if included in all certificates.

subjectKeyIdentifier=hash

authorityKeyIdentifier=keyid,issuer:always

# This stuff is for subjectAltName and issuerAltname.

# Import the email address.

# subjectAltName=email:copy

# An alternative to produce certificates that aren't

# deprecated according to PKIX.

# subjectAltName=email:move

# Copy subject details

# issuerAltName=issuer:copy

#nsCaRevocationUrl     = http://www.domain.dom/ca-crl.pem

#nsBaseUrl

#nsRevocationUrl

#nsRenewalUrl

#nsCaPolicyUrl

#nsSslServerName

# This really needs to be in place for it to be a proxy certificate.

proxyCertInfo=critical,language:id-ppl-anyLanguage,pathlen:3,policy:foo

(3)创建随机数种子rand文件:

cd c:"openssl"bin

openssl rand -out c:/ca/keys/.rand 1024

2       创建数字证书

创建根证书(CA.COM

(1)创建根证书的私钥与证书申请;

openssl genrsa -des3 -out c:/ca/keys/CA.COM.key 2048

** 创建时需要指定根私钥保护密码,请牢记此密码。

openssl req -new -out CA.COM.csr -key c:/ca/keys/CA.COM.key -config openssl.cnf

** 创建时需要指定下列内容,其他内容使用默认值。

Country Name : CN

State or Province Name: BeiJing

Organization Name:COM

Organizational Unit Name:COM

Common Name:CA.COM

或:

openssl req -newkey rsa:2048 -keyout c:/ca/Keys/CA.COM.key -out CA.COM.csr -config openssl.cnf

** 创建时需要指定下列内容,其他内容使用默认值。

Country Name : CN

State or Province Name: BeiJing

Organization Name:COM

Organizational Unit Name:COM

Common Name:CA.COM

(2)使用根私钥对根证书自签名;

openssl ca -in CA.COM.csr -out c:/ca/certs/CA.COM.crt -selfsign -keyfile c:/ca/keys/CA.COM.key -days 7305 -extensions v3_ca -config openssl.cnf

** 确认证书主题是:

            countryName               = CN

            stateOrProvinceName       = BeiJing

            organizationName          = COM

            organizationalUnitName    = COM

            commonName                = CA.COM

或:

openssl x509 -in CA.COM.csr -out c:/ca/certs/CA.COM.crt -req -signkey c:/ca/keys/CA.COM.key -days 7305 -extensions v3_ca -config openssl.cnf

** 确认证书主题是:

            countryName               = CN

            stateOrProvinceName       = BeiJing

            organizationName          = COM

            organizationalUnitName    = COM

            commonName                = CA.COM

(3)删除根证书申请文件CA.COM.csr。

创建二级根证书(CA.YOUR.COM

创建完根证书后,我们可以使用根证书创建二级根证书。

(1)创建二级根证书的证书申请;

openssl req -newkey rsa:2048 -keyout c:/ca/keys/CA.YOUR.COM.key -out CA.YOUR.COM.csr -config openssl.cnf

** 创建时需要指定二级证书私钥的保护密码,请牢记此密码;

** 创建时需要指定下列内容,其他内容使用默认值。

Country Name : CN

State or Province Name: BeiJing

Organization Name:COM

Organizational Unit Name:YOUR

Common Name:CA.YOUR.COM

(2)使用根证书对二级根证书进行签名;

openssl ca -in CA.YOUR.COM.csr -out c:/ca/certs/CA.YOUR.COM.crt -keyfile c:/ca/keys/CA.COM.key -cert c:/ca/certs/CA.COM.crt -days 7305 -extensions v3_ca -config openssl.cnf

** 输入根私钥的保护密码;

** 确认证书主题是:

           countryName               = CN

            stateOrProvinceName       = BeiJing

            organizationName          = COM

            organizationalUnitName    = YOUR

            commonName                = CA.YOUR.COM

(3)删除二级根证书申请文件CA.YOUR.COM.csr。

至此我们创建完二级根证书,后续的服务器证书与个人证书,我们都使用二级根证书做签名。当然,我们也可以使用根证书签名,但为模拟更现实的情况,我们使用二级根证书做主要的签名证书。

创建服务器证书

(1)创建服务器证书的证书申请;

openssl req -newkey rsa:1024 -keyout c:/ca/keys/www.your.com.key -out www.your.com.csr -config openssl.cnf

** 创建时需要指定服务器证书私钥的保护密码,请牢记此密码;

** 创建时需要指定下列内容,其他内容使用默认值。

Country Name : CN

State or Province Name: BeiJing

Organization Name:COM

Organizational Unit Name:YOUR

Common Name:www.your.com

(2)使用二级根证书对服务器证书签名;

openssl ca -in www.your.com.csr -out c:/ca/certs/www.your.com.crt -config openssl.cnf

** 输入二级证书的私钥保护密码;

** 确认证书主题是:

 countryName               = CN

 stateOrProvinceName       = BeiJing

 organizationName          = COM

 organizationalUnitName    = YOUR

 commonName                = www.your.com

注意:本步骤中我们使用了配置文件openssl.cnf中指定的签名证书ca.your.com.crt与签名证书私钥ca.your.com.key以及有效期365,因而命令比2.2节命令要简洁许多。

(3)删除服务器证书申请文件www.your.com.csr。

创建个人证书

(1)创建个人证书的证书申请;

openssl req -newkey rsa:1024 -keyout my.key -out my.csr -config openssl.cnf

** 创建时需要指定个人证书私钥的保护密码,请牢记此密码;

** 创建时需要指定下列内容,其他内容使用默认值。

Country Name : CN

State or Province Name: BeiJing

Organization Name:COM

Organizational Unit Name:YOUR

Common Name:my@your.com

(2)使用二级根证书对个人证书签名;

openssl ca -in my.csr -out my.crt -config openssl.cnf

** 输入二级证书的私钥保护密码;

** 确认证书主题是:

 countryName               = CN

 stateOrProvinceName       = BeiJing

 organizationName          = COM

 organizationalUnitName    = YOUR

 commonName                = my@your.com

(3)添加证书链到个人证书。编辑my.crt文件,将CA.YOUR.COM.crt和CA.COM.crt文件从BEGIN CERTIFICATE开始的内容按序复制到my.crt文件中;

(4)合并编辑后的my.crt与my.key为个人证书文件my.pfx;

openssl pkcs12 -export -in my.crt -inkey my.key -out c:/ca/certs/my.pfx

** 输入my的证书私钥保护密码;

** 重新指定个人证书的保护密码,请牢记此密码;

(5)删除个人证书申请文件my.csr、私钥文件my.key、证书文件my.crt。

注意:第3、4两步可以使用下列命令一步完成:

openssl pkcs12 -export -in my.crt -inkey my.key -out c:/ca/certs/my.pfx -certfile c:/ca/certs/ca.your.com.crt -certfile c:/ca/certs/ca.com.crt

再按以上步骤,创建另外一张个人证书my1.pfx,Common Name为my1。后面我们将注销这张证书,演示证书注销列表的使用。

创建证书链文件

Web服务器与客户端建立SSL通信通道前,要交换双方的证书,并使用本方的证书链文件(P7B-PKCS7)与证书注销列表文件(CRL)验证对方证书的合法性。

证书链文件,实际上就是多个CA的证书(公钥),有两种格式:一是文本格式(Privacy Enhanced Mail,PEM),即使用BASE64转码后的格式;二是二进制格式(Distinguished Encoding Rules,DER),即P7B文件。其中,PEM格式仅需将各CA的证书从枝到根的顺序合并在一起即可。而P7B格式的证书链文件,则需要特殊处理。

使用OpenSSL创建P7B格式的证书链文件的命令如下:

openssl crl2pkcs7 -out c:/ca/your.p7b -nocrl -certfile c:/ca/certs/CA.YOUR.COM.crt -certfile c:/ca/certs/CA.COM.crt

创建证书注销列表文件

(1)注销证书my1.pfx;

编辑c:/ca/index.txt文件,查阅/C=CN /ST=BeiJing /O=COM /OU=YOUR /CN=lny对应的证书序号为05。创建证书时,openssl自动将新创建的证书存储在certs目录下,文件名为<证书序号>.pem,因此05.pem即为my1.pfx对应的证书。使用下列命令可以显示证书的主题信息进行确认:

openssl x509 -in c:/ca/certs/05.pem -text

** 确认主题是:Subject: C=CN, ST=BeiJing, O=COM, OU=YOUR, CN=my1

然后,使用下列命令注销此证书:

openssl ca -revoke c:/ca/certs/05.pem

** 输入二级根证书的私钥保护密码。

再次编辑c:/ca/index.txt,可以看到05号证书的状态已经修改为R,即注销了。

(2)生成证书注销列表文件;

openssl ca -gencrl -crldays 7 -crlexts crl_ext -out c:/ca/crl/your.crl -config openssl.cnf

** 输入二级证书的私钥保护密码;

(3)转换PEM格式证书列表文件为DER格式;

本步骤是可选的。如果客户端或服务器需要DER格式的证书注销列表文件,则可以使用下列命令进行格式转换:

openssl crl -inform PEM -outform DER -in c:/ca/crl/your.crl -out c:/ca/crl/your_bin.crl

注意:上述操作中,我们可以注销多个证书后再生成证书注销列表。生成证书注销列表时,我们指定了下次发布证书注销列表的日期为7日后(-crldays 7)。

3       配置Apache

准备好需要的各种证书及配套的文件后,我们可以配置Apache,启用SSL连接服务。

(1)编辑apache/conf/httpd.conf,删除#Include conf/extra/ httpd-ssl.conf前的#,激活httpd-ssl.conf;

(2)编辑apache/conf/extra/httpd-ssl.conf,将全部包含C:/Program Files/Apache Software Foundation/Apache2.2的项编辑为使用""括(兰色字体部分),修改如下:

#

# This is the Apache server configuration file providing SSL support.

# It contains the configuration directives to instruct the server how to

# serve pages over an https connection. For detailing information about these

# directives see <URL:http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.2/mod/mod_ssl.html>

#

# Do NOT simply read the instructions in here without understanding

# what they do. They're here only as hints or reminders. If you are unsure

# consult the online docs. You have been warned. 

#

#

# Pseudo Random Number Generator (PRNG):

# Configure one or more sources to seed the PRNG of the SSL library.

# The seed data should be of good random quality.

# WARNING! On some platforms /dev/random blocks if not enough entropy

# is available. This means you then cannot use the /dev/random device

# because it would lead to very long connection times (as long as

# it requires to make more entropy available). But usually those

# platforms additionally provide a /dev/urandom device which doesn't

# block. So, if available, use this one instead. Read the mod_ssl User

# Manual for more details.

#

#SSLRandomSeed startup file:/dev/random 512

#SSLRandomSeed startup file:/dev/urandom 512

#SSLRandomSeed connect file:/dev/random 512

#SSLRandomSeed connect file:/dev/urandom 512

#

# When we also provide SSL we have to listen to the

# standard HTTP port (see above) and to the HTTPS port

#

# Note: Configurations that use IPv6 but not IPv4-mapped addresses need two

#       Listen directives: "Listen [::]:443" and "Listen 0.0.0.0:443"

#

Listen 443

##

## SSL Global Context

##

## All SSL configuration in this context applies both to

## the main server and all SSL-enabled virtual hosts.

##

#

#   Some MIME-types for downloading Certificates and CRLs

#

AddType application/x-x509-ca-cert .crt

AddType application/x-pkcs7-crl    .crl

#   Pass Phrase Dialog:

#   Configure the pass phrase gathering process.

#   The filtering dialog program (`builtin' is a internal

#   terminal dialog) has to provide the pass phrase on stdout.

SSLPassPhraseDialog builtin

#   Inter-Process Session Cache:

#   Configure the SSL Session Cache: First the mechanism

#   to use and second the expiring timeout (in seconds).

#SSLSessionCache         dbm:C:/Program Files/Apache Software Foundation/Apache2.2/logs/ssl_scache

SSLSessionCache        "shmcb:C:/Program Files/Apache Software Foundation/Apache2.2/logs/ssl_scache(512000)"

SSLSessionCacheTimeout 300

#   Semaphore:

#   Configure the path to the mutual exclusion semaphore the

#   SSL engine uses internally for inter-process synchronization.

SSLMutex default

##

## SSL Virtual Host Context

##

<VirtualHost _default_:443>

 


#   General setup for the virtual host

DocumentRoot "C:/Program Files/Apache Software Foundation/Apache2.2/htdocs"

ServerName lny.your.com:443

ServerAdmin nyli@your.cn

ErrorLog "C:/Program Files/Apache Software Foundation/Apache2.2/logs/error_log"

TransferLog "C:/Program Files/Apache Software Foundation/Apache2.2/logs/access_log"

#   SSL Engine Switch:

#   Enable/Disable SSL for this virtual host.

SSLEngine on

#   SSL Cipher Suite:

#   List the ciphers that the client is permitted to negotiate.

#   See the mod_ssl documentation for a complete list.

SSLCipherSuite ALL:!ADH:!EXPORT56:RC4+RSA:+HIGH:+MEDIUM:+LOW:+SSLv2:+EXP:+eNULL

#   Server Certificate:

#   Point SSLCertificateFile at a PEM encoded certificate. If

#   the certificate is encrypted, then you will be prompted for a

#   pass phrase. Note that a kill -HUP will prompt again. Keep

#   in mind that if you have both an RSA and a DSA certificate you

#   can configure both in parallel (to also allow the use of DSA

#   ciphers, etc.)

SSLCertificateFile "C:/Program Files/Apache Software Foundation/Apache2.2/conf/server.crt"

#SSLCertificateFile C:/Program Files/Apache Software Foundation/Apache2.2/conf/server-dsa.crt

#   Server Private Key:

#   If the key is not combined with the certificate, use this

#   directive to point at the key file. Keep in mind that if

#   you've both a RSA and a DSA private key you can configure

#   both in parallel (to also allow the use of DSA ciphers, etc.)

SSLCertificateKeyFile "C:/Program Files/Apache Software Foundation/Apache2.2/conf/server.key"

#SSLCertificateKeyFile C:/Program Files/Apache Software Foundation/Apache2.2/conf/server-dsa.key

#   Server Certificate Chain:

#   Point SSLCertificateChainFile at a file containing the

#   concatenation of PEM encoded CA certificates which form the

#   certificate chain for the server certificate. Alternatively

#   the referenced file can be the same as SSLCertificateFile

#   when the CA certificates are directly appended to the server

#   certificate for convinience.

SSLCertificateChainFile "C:/Program Files/Apache Software Foundation/Apache2.2/conf/ca.crt"

#   Certificate Authority (CA):

#   Set the CA certificate verification path where to find CA

#   certificates for client authentication or alternatively one

#   huge file containing all of them (file must be PEM encoded)

#   Note: Inside SSLCACertificatePath you need hash symlinks

#         to point to the certificate files. Use the provided

#         Makefile to update the hash symlinks after changes.

SSLCACertificatePath "C:/Program Files/Apache Software Foundation/Apache2.2/conf"

SSLCACertificateFile "C:/Program Files/Apache Software Foundation/Apache2.2/conf/ca.crt"

#   Certificate Revocation Lists (CRL):

#   Set the CA revocation path where to find CA CRLs for client

#   authentication or alternatively one huge file containing all

#   of them (file must be PEM encoded)

#   Note: Inside SSLCARevocationPath you need hash symlinks

#         to point to the certificate files. Use the provided

#         Makefile to update the hash symlinks after changes.

SSLCARevocationPath "C:/Program Files/Apache Software Foundation/Apache2.2/conf"

SSLCARevocationFile "C:/Program Files/Apache Software Foundation/Apache2.2/conf/ca.crl"

#   Client Authentication (Type):

#   Client certificate verification type and depth. Types are

#   none, optional, require and optional_no_ca. Depth is a

#   number which specifies how deeply to verify the certificate

#   issuer chain before deciding the certificate is not valid.

SSLVerifyClient require

SSLVerifyDepth 10

#   Access Control:

#   With SSLRequire you can do per-directory access control based

#   on arbitrary complex boolean expressions containing server

#   variable checks and other lookup directives. The syntax is a

#   mixture between C and Perl. See the mod_ssl documentation

#   for more details.

#<Location />

#SSLRequire (    %{SSL_CIPHER} !~ m/^(EXP|NULL)/ "

#            and %{SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_O} eq "Snake Oil, Ltd." "

#            and %{SSL_CLIENT_S_DN_OU} in {"Staff", "CA", "Dev"} "

#            and %{TIME_WDAY} >= 1 and %{TIME_WDAY} <= 5 "

#            and %{TIME_HOUR} >= 8 and %{TIME_HOUR} <= 20       ) "

#           or %{REMOTE_ADDR} =~ m/^192".76".162".[0-9]+$/

#</Location>

#   SSL Engine Options:

#   Set various options for the SSL engine.

#   o FakeBasicAuth:

#     Translate the client X.509 into a Basic Authorisation. This means that

#     the standard Auth/DBMAuth methods can be used for access control. The

#     user name is the `one line' version of the client's X.509 certificate.

#     Note that no password is obtained from the user. Every entry in the user

#     file needs this password: `xxj31ZMTZzkVA'.

#   o ExportCertData:

#     This exports two additional environment variables: SSL_CLIENT_CERT and

#     SSL_SERVER_CERT. These contain the PEM-encoded certificates of the

#     server (always existing) and the client (only existing when client

#     authentication is used). This can be used to import the certificates

#     into CGI scripts.

#   o StdEnvVars:

#     This exports the standard SSL/TLS related `SSL_*' environment variables.

#     Per default this exportation is switched off for performance reasons,

#     because the extraction step is an expensive operation and is usually

#     useless for serving static content. So one usually enables the

#     exportation for CGI and SSI requests only.

#   o StrictRequire:

#     This denies access when "SSLRequireSSL" or "SSLRequire" applied even

#     under a "Satisfy any" situation, i.e. when it applies access is denied

#     and no other module can change it.

#   o OptRenegotiate:

#     This enables optimized SSL connection renegotiation handling when SSL

#     directives are used in per-directory context.

#SSLOptions +FakeBasicAuth +ExportCertData +StrictRequire

<FilesMatch "".(cgi|shtml|phtml|php)$">

    SSLOptions +StdEnvVars

</FilesMatch>

<Directory "C:/Program Files/Apache Software Foundation/Apache2.2/cgi-bin">

    SSLOptions +StdEnvVars

</Directory>

#   SSL Protocol Adjustments:

#   The safe and default but still SSL/TLS standard compliant shutdown

#   approach is that mod_ssl sends the close notify alert but doesn't wait for

#   the close notify alert from client. When you need a different shutdown

#   approach you can use one of the following variables:

#   o ssl-unclean-shutdown:

#     This forces an unclean shutdown when the connection is closed, i.e. no

#     SSL close notify alert is send or allowed to received. This violates

#     the SSL/TLS standard but is needed for some brain-dead browsers. Use

#     this when you receive I/O errors because of the standard approach where

#     mod_ssl sends the close notify alert.

#   o ssl-accurate-shutdown:

#     This forces an accurate shutdown when the connection is closed, i.e. a

#     SSL close notify alert is send and mod_ssl waits for the close notify

#     alert of the client. This is 100% SSL/TLS standard compliant, but in

#     practice often causes hanging connections with brain-dead browsers. Use

#     this only for browsers where you know that their SSL implementation

#     works correctly.

#   Notice: Most problems of broken clients are also related to the HTTP

#   keep-alive facility, so you usually additionally want to disable

#   keep-alive for those clients, too. Use variable "nokeepalive" for this.

#   Similarly, one has to force some clients to use HTTP/1.0 to workaround

#   their broken HTTP/1.1 implementation. Use variables "downgrade-1.0" and

#   "force-response-1.0" for this.

BrowserMatch ".*MSIE.*" "

         nokeepalive ssl-unclean-shutdown "

         downgrade-1.0 force-response-1.0

#   Per-Server Logging:

#   The home of a custom SSL log file. Use this when you want a

#   compact non-error SSL logfile on a virtual host basis.

CustomLog "C:/Program Files/Apache Software Foundation/Apache2.2/logs/ssl_request_log" "

          "%t %h %{SSL_PROTOCOL}x %{SSL_CIPHER}x ""%r"" %b"

</VirtualHost>                                 

(3)取消www.your.com.key的私钥保护密码;

此操作仅Win32的Apache需要。

Linux的Apache启动时自动提示要求输入服务器证书私钥的保护密码,而Win32的Apache没有此功能,因此必须取消证书私钥的保护密码。

openssl rsa -in c:/ca/keys/www.your.com.key -out c:/ca/keys/www.your.com1.key

** 输入lny.your.com的私钥保护密码。

(4)复制证书文件;

移动c:/ca/keys/www.your.com1.key到conf/server.key;

复制c:/ca/certs/www.your.com.crt到conf/server.crt;

合并c:/ca/certs/CA.YOUR.COM.crt和c:/ca/certs/CA.COM. crt证书从BEGIN CERTIFICATE开始的内容到PEM格式的证书链文件中,复制该证书链文件到conf/ca.crt。如果有P7B格式的证书链文件,可以使用下列命名转换成PEM格式的证书链文件。

openssl pkcs7 -in c:/ca/your.p7b -out ca.crt -print_certs

复制c:/ca/crl/your.crl到conf/ca.crl。

4       测试

(1)编辑客户端hosts文件,增加服务器的域名;

192.168.100.1   www.your.com

(2)复制并安装个人证书lny.pfx和lny1.pfx;

(3)使用ie浏览器访问服务器https://www.your.com,在弹出的证书选择窗口中选择my@your.cn证书,应能连接到服务器,输出如下内容。


(4)使用ie浏览器访问服务器https://www.your.com,在弹出的证书选择窗口中选择my1证书,应弹出下列错误窗口。


5       其他证书管理

从个人证书中获取私钥

openssl pkcs12 -in c:/ca/certs/my.pfx -out my.key –nocerts

** 输入个人证书的保护密码;

** 指定个人证书私钥的保护密码。

从个人证书中获取证书

openssl pkcs12 -in c:/ca/certs/my.pfx -out my.crt -nokeys

** 输入个人证书的保护密码。

posted on 2007-11-29 14:34 飞鹰 阅读(15422) 评论(12)  编辑  收藏

评论:
# re: Apache服务器SSL配置 2008-01-03 10:54 | xiaosun
你好.我按照你的帖子去配置的apache+ssl.成功了.十分感谢.不过最近出了个问题,希望您能再给予帮助.2008-1-1号以后我的应用都提示客户端的证书过期,可期限明明还有接近1年,然后我又重新制作了几个新的客户证书,结果还是提示过期,您知道是什么原因吗?  回复  更多评论
  
# re: Apache服务器SSL配置 2008-01-03 14:28 | sham2k
@xiaosun
这种情况我没有遇到过,按理应该不会这样的。
你使用window打开你的证书,确认下有效期。如果有效期没有问题,你可以考虑更换下openssl库。另外机器的日期也确认下。  回复  更多评论
  
# re: Apache服务器SSL配置 2008-02-21 16:21 | com
你好,我想问下如果要配多个ca的话,应该如何配置?  回复  更多评论
  
# re: Apache服务器SSL配置 2008-02-21 17:06 | sham2k
@com
你可以试试将多个CA的证书文件添加到一个证书链文件中试试,具体操作在2.5 创建证书链文件,不过我没有测试过。  回复  更多评论
  
# re: Apache服务器SSL配置 2009-01-11 21:45 | yj98
你好,,请教个问题..

不知道我理解的对不对. ?

如果你的证书没到专门受信任的第三方证书颁发机构的确认. 那么在客户使用浏览器打开时就会始终提示"尚未验证网站身份"..

而像支付宝这样的网站已经购买申请了受信任的证书颁发机构的认证, 所以客户打开其站点从而不会提示"尚未验证"

至于我们这样的个人站点,如果你不花钱申请认证, 那做不做上面的:"自签名证书,自己给自己签的server、client证书,自签名,自己作CA" 都无所谓. ???

理解的对否?  回复  更多评论
  
# re: Apache服务器SSL配置 2009-06-05 18:46 | zhengwenkan
请问,我用的是apache2.2.11自带openssl-0.9.8i的,按照上面所说的配置完成以后还是不行,请问,可能的问题出在哪里,证书什么的都可以正常生成,就是最后一步,网页链接没有反应,请指教,不胜感激
qq:32651238
msn:zwkatxiamen@hotmail.com
email:zhengwenkan@sina.com  回复  更多评论
  
# re: Apache服务器SSL配置 2009-06-23 17:06 | wangqs
你好, 您的手顺很详细, 我们按照您的手顺成功得完成了apache ssl的配置,

我想请问一下, 在调查的过程中,您主要参考了哪些资料? :) 谢谢~~~  回复  更多评论
  
# re: Apache服务器SSL配置 2009-06-23 17:19 | sham
我不记得查阅过哪些资料了,都是边学习边实践总结出来的。  回复  更多评论
  
# re: Apache服务器SSL配置[未登录] 2011-04-12 10:48 | 大鹏
请问这种安装会弹窗吗? 提示可信任机构的问题?  回复  更多评论
  
# re: Apache服务器SSL配置 2013-01-13 19:44 | 酷酷虫
博主我请教一个问题,我在windows下的apache 是no_ssl的,请问,我的设置该怎么处理。
还有在mac系统,自带的apache,怎么设置ssl  回复  更多评论
  
# re: Apache服务器SSL配置 2013-07-29 10:48 | Heran
能用。谢谢。  回复  更多评论
  
# re: Apache服务器SSL配置 2013-10-02 17:03 | 闫丽霞
我的电脑是2013,1月23日买的我是一个老太太现在我发现电脑里有,c;\documentsandsettings\administrator,,pkcs7,有黑帐号,有人控制我的电脑,我现在干什么他知道,我的电脑里有那么多国外的证书,这是怎么回事  回复  更多评论
  

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