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基于CentOS的LAMP 作者:NetSeek
   大纲:
一、系统安装
二、编译安装基本环境
三、配置虚拟主机及基本性能调优
四、基本安全设置
五、附录及相关介绍

一、系统安装
1. 分区
     /boot 100M左右
     SWAP 物理内存的2倍(如果你的物理内存大于4G以上,分配4G即可)
     /            15G
     /usr/local 20G (用于安装软件)
     /data 剩余所有空间

2. 系统初始化脚本(根据具体需求关闭不需要的服务)
  
代码:
#vi init.sh
-------------------cut begin-------------------------------------------
#welcome
cat << EOF
+--------------------------------------------------------------+
|         === Welcome to Centos System init ===                |
+--------------http://www.linuxtone.org------------------------+
+----------------------Author:NetSeek--------------------------+
EOF

#disable ipv6
cat << EOF
+--------------------------------------------------------------+
|         === Welcome to Disable IPV6 ===                      |
+--------------------------------------------------------------+
EOF
echo "alias net-pf-10 off" >> /etc/modprobe.conf
echo "alias ipv6 off" >> /etc/modprobe.conf
/sbin/chkconfig --level 35 ip6tables off
echo "ipv6 is disabled!"

#disable selinux
sed -i '/SELINUX/s/enforcing/disabled/' /etc/selinux/config
echo "selinux is disabled,you must reboot!"

#vim
sed -i "8 s/^/alias vi='vim'/" /root/.bashrc
echo 'syntax on' > /root/.vimrc

#zh_cn
sed -i -e 's/^LANG=.*/LANG="zh_CN.GB18030"/'   /etc/sysconfig/i18n

#tunoff services
#--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
cat << EOF
+--------------------------------------------------------------+
|         === Welcome to Tunoff services ===                   |
+--------------------------------------------------------------+
EOF
#---------------------------------------------------------------------------------
for i in `ls /etc/rc3.d/S*`
do
               CURSRV=`echo $i|cut -c 15-`

echo $CURSRV
case $CURSRV in
           crond | irqbalance | microcode_ctl | network | random | sendmail |
sshd | syslog | local | mysqld )
       echo "Base services, Skip!"
       ;;
       *)
           echo "change $CURSRV to off"
           chkconfig --level 235 $CURSRV off
           service $CURSRV stop
       ;;
esac
done
-------------------cut end-------------------------------------------
#sh init.sh (执行上面保存的脚本,仍后重启)
脚本就是只留这几个服务
crond | irqbalance | microcode_ctl | network | random | sendmail | sshd |
syslog | local | mysqld
二、编译安装基本环境

1. 安装准备
     1) 系统约定
      软件源代码包存放位置        /usr/local/src
      源码包编译安装位置(prefix)        /usr/local/software_name
      脚本以及维护程序存放位置        /usr/local/sbin
      MySQL 数据库位置        /data/mysql/data(可按情况设置)
      Apache 网站根目录        /data/www/wwwroot(可按情况设置)
      Apache 虚拟主机日志根目录        /data/www/logs(可按情况设置)
      Apache 运行账户        www:www (useradd -d /data/www/;chown www.www
/data/www/wwwroot)

    2) 系统环境部署及调整
     检查系统是否正常
     # tail -n100 /var/log/messages        (检查有无系统级错误信息)
     # dmesg (检查硬件设备是否有错误信息)
     # ifconfig(检查网卡设置是否正确)
     # ping www.linuxtone.org        (检查网络是否正常)

    3) 使用 yum 程序安装所需开发包(以下为标准的 RPM 包名称)
     #rpm --import http://mirror.centos.org/centos/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-5
     #yum install ntp vim-enhanced gcc gcc-c++ gcc-g77 flex bison autoconf
automake bzip2-devel \
      ncurses-devel zlib-devel libjpeg-devel libpng-devel libtiff-devel
freetype-devel libXpm-devel \
      gettext-devel pam-devel kernel

 

    4) 定时校正服务器时钟,定时与中国国家授时中心授时服务器同步
     # crontab -e
     加入一行:
     15 3 * * * /usr/sbin/ntpdate 210.72.145.44 > /dev/null 2>&1

2. 编译安装软件包
     源码编译安装所需包(Source)
     1) GD2
         # cd /usr/local/src
         # tar xvf gd-2.0.35.tar.gz
         # cd gd-2.0.35
         # ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/gd2
         # make
         # make install

     2) LibXML2
         # cd /usr/local/src
                  # tar xvf libxml2-2.6.29.tar.bz2
                  # cd libxml2-2.6.29
                  # ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/libxml2
                  # make
                  # make install

     3) LibMcrypt
                  # cd /usr/local/src
                  # tar xvf libmcrypt-2.5.8.tar.bz2
                  # cd libmcrypt-2.5.8
                  # ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/libmcrypt
                  # make
                  # make install

     4) Apache日志截断程序
                  # cd /usr/local/src
                  # tar xvf cronolog-1.6.2.tar.gz
                  # cd cronolog-1.6.2
                  # ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/cronolog
                  # make
                  # make install

 

3. 升级OpenSSL和OpenSSH
      # cd /usr/local/src
      # tar xvf openssl-0.9.8g.tar.gz
      # cd openssl-0.9.8g
      # ./config --prefix=/usr/local/openssl
      # make
      # make test
# make install
      # cd ..
      # tar xvf openssh-5.0p1.tar.gz
      # cd openssh-5.0p1
# ./configure \
"--prefix=/usr" \
"--with-pam" \
"--with-zlib" \
"--sysconfdir=/etc/ssh" \
"--with-ssl-dir=/usr/local/openssl" \
"--with-md5-passwords"
      # make
      # make install
    
    1) 禁用 SSH V1 协议
    找到#Protocol 2,1改为:Protocol 2

    2) 禁用服务器端GSSAPI
    找到以下两行,并将它们注释:
    GSSAPIAuthentication yes
    GSSAPICleanupCredentials yes

    3) 禁用 DNS 名称解析
找到:#UseDNS yeas改为:UseDNS no

    4)禁用客户端 GSSAPI
    # vi /etc/ssh/ssh_config 找到:GSSAPIAuthentication yes 将这行注释掉。
    最后,确认修改正确后重新启动 SSH 服务
    # service sshd restart
    # ssh -v
    确认 OpenSSH 以及 OpenSSL 版本正确。

以上SSH配置可利用以下脚本自动修改:
代码:
-------------------cut begin-------------------------------------------
#init_ssh
ssh_cf="/etc/ssh/sshd_config"
sed -i -e '74 s/^/#/' -i -e '76 s/^/#/' $ssh_cf
sed -i "s/#UseDNS yes/UseDNS no/" $ssh_cf
#client
sed -i -e '44 s/^/#/' -i -e '48 s/^/#/' $ssh_cf
echo "ssh is init is ok.............."
-------------------cut end---------------------------------------------
三、编译安装A.M.P环境

1.下载软件编译安装
    1)下载软件
      # cd /usr/local/src
      httpd-2.2.8.tar.gz
      mysql-5.0.51b.tar.gz  
      php-5.2.6.tar.bz2
      ZendOptimizer-3.3.3-linux-glibc23-i386.tar.gz

    2) 安装MySQL
      查看分析你的CPU型号:
      http://gentoo-wiki.com/Safe_Cflags 查找您的GCC编译参数.
      确定系统CPU类型:
      # cat /proc/cpuinfo | grep "model name"
      执行后会看到系统中CPU的具体型号,记下CPU型号。

      # tar xvf mysql-5.0.51b.tar.gz  
      # cd mysql-5.0.51b
      # vi mysql.sh
代码:
-------------------cut begin-------------------------------------------
CHOST="i686-pc-linux-gnu"
CFLAGS="-march=prescott -O2 -pipe -fomit-frame-pointer"
CXXFLAGS="${CFLAGS}"
./configure \
          "--prefix=/usr/local/mysql" \
          "--localstatedir=/data/mysql/data" \
          "--with-comment=Source" \
          "--with-server-suffix=-LinuxTone" \
          "--with-mysqld-user=mysql" \
          "--without-debug" \
          "--with-big-tables" \
          "--with-charset=gbk" \
          "--with-collation=gbk_chinese_ci" \
          "--with-extra-charsets=all" \
          "--with-pthread" \
          "--enable-static" \
          "--enable-thread-safe-client" \
          "--with-client-ldflags=-all-static" \
          "--with-mysqld-ldflags=-all-static" \
          "--enable-assembler" \
          "--without-isam" \
          "--without-innodb" \
          "--without-ndb-debug"
make && make install
mkdir -p /data/mysql/data
useradd mysql -d /data/mysql -s /sbin/nologin
/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql_install_db --user=mysql
cd /usr/local/mysql
chown -R root:mysql .
chown -R mysql /data/mysql/data
cp share/mysql/my-huge.cnf /etc/my.cnf
cp share/mysql/mysql.server /etc/rc.d/init.d/mysqld
chmod 755 /etc/rc.d/init.d/mysqld
chkconfig --add mysqld
/etc/rc.d/init.d/mysqld start

cd /usr/local/mysql/bin
for i in *; do ln -s /usr/local/mysql/bin/$i /usr/bin/$i; done

-------------------cut end---------------------------------------------
#sh mysql.sh 即可开始编译.

     3) 编译安装Apache
# cd /usr/local/src
# tar xvf httpd-2.2.8.tar.gz
# cd httpd-2.2.8
  
代码:
      # ./configure \
          "--prefix=/usr/local/apache2" \
                   "--with-included-apr" \
          "--enable-so" \
          "--enable-deflate=shared" \
          "--enable-expires=shared" \
          "--enable-rewrite=shared" \
          "--enable-static-support" \
          "--disable-userdir"
      # make
      # make install
      # echo '/usr/local/apache2/bin/apachectl start ' >> /etc/rc.local
   4.)编译安装PHP
      # cd /usr/local/src
      # tar xjvf php-5.2.6.tar.bz2
      # cd php-5.2.6
  
代码:
      # ./configure \
          "--prefix=/usr/local/php" \
          "--with-apxs2=/usr/local/apache2/bin/apxs" \
          "--with-config-file-path=/usr/local/php/etc" \
          "--with-mysql=/usr/local/mysql" \
          "--with-libxml-dir=/usr/local/libxml2" \
          "--with-gd=/usr/local/gd2" \
          "--with-jpeg-dir" \
          "--with-png-dir" \
          "--with-bz2" \
          "--with-freetype-dir" \
          "--with-iconv-dir" \
          "--with-zlib-dir " \
          "--with-openssl=/usr/local/openssl" \
          "--with-mcrypt=/usr/local/libmcrypt" \
          "--enable-soap" \
          "--enable-gd-native-ttf" \
          "--enable-ftp" \
          "--enable-mbstring" \
          "--enable-exif" \
          "--disable-ipv6" \
          "--disable-cgi" \
          "--disable-cli"           #禁掉ipv6,禁掉cli模式,提升速度和安全性.请根据具体需求定制相关的编译数.
# make
# make install
# mkdir /usr/local/php/etc
# cp php.ini-dist /usr/local/php/etc/php.ini
   5)Xcache的安装.
    #tar xvf xcache-1.2.2.tar.gz
  
代码:
    #/usr/local/php/bin/phpize
    ./configure --enable-xcache --enable-xcache-coverager
--with-php-config=/usr/local/php/bin/php-config \
    --enable-inline-optimization --disable-debug
  
代码:
    #/usr/local/php/bin/phpize
    ./configure --enable-xcache --enable-xcache-coverager
--with-php-config=/usr/local/php/bin/php-config \
    --enable-inline-optimization --disable-debug
  
代码:
-------------------cut begin-------------------------------------------
[xcache-common]
zend_extension      =
/usr/local/php/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20060613/xcache.so

[xcache.admin]
xcache.admin.user   = "admin"
;如何生成md5密码: echo -n "password"| md5sum
xcache.admin.pass   = "035d849226a8a10be1a5e0fec1f0f3ce" #密码为52netseek

[xcache]
; Change xcache.size to tune the size of the opcode cache
xcache.size         = 24M
xcache.shm_scheme   = "mmap"
xcache.count        = 4
xcache.slots        = 8K
xcache.ttl          = 0
xcache.gc_interval = 0

; Change xcache.var_size to adjust the size of variable cache
xcache.var_size     = 8M
xcache.var_count    = 1
xcache.var_slots    = 8K
xcache.var_ttl      = 0
xcache.var_maxttl   = 0
xcache.var_gc_interval =     300
xcache.test         = Off
xcache.readonly_protection = On
xcache.mmap_path    = "/tmp/xcache"
xcache.coredump_directory =   ""
xcache.cacher       = On
xcache.stat         = On
xcache.optimizer    = Off

[xcache.coverager]
xcache.coverager    = On
xcache.coveragedump_directory = ""
-------------------cut end---------------------------------------------
   6) 安装Zend Optimizer
      # cd /usr/local/src
      # tar xzvf ZendOptimizer-3.3.3-linux-glibc23-i386.tar.gz
      # ./ZendOptimizer-3.3.3-linux-glibc23-i386/install.sh
      安装Zend Optimizer过程的最后不要选择重启Apache。


2. 整合Apache与PHP及系统初化配置.
     1)整合Apache与PHP
      # vi /usr/local/apache2/conf/httpd.conf
      找到:
      AddType application/x-gzip .gz .tgz
      在该行下面添加
      AddType application/x-httpd-php .php

     找到:
     <IfModule dir_module>
         DirectoryIndex index.html
     </IfModule>
     将该行改为
     <IfModule dir_module>
          DirectoryIndex index.html index.htm index.php
     </IfModule>

找到:
#Include conf/extra/httpd-mpm.conf
#Include conf/extra/httpd-info.conf
#Include conf/extra/httpd-vhosts.conf (虚拟主机配置文件存放目录.)
#Include conf/extra/httpd-default.conf
去掉前面的“#”号,取消注释。
注意:以上 4 个扩展配置文件中的设置请按照相关原则进行合理配置!

修改完成后保存退出。
# /usr/local/apache2/bin/apachectl restart

    2)查看确认L.A.M.P环境信息、提升 PHP 安全性
     在网站根目录放置 info.php 脚本,检查phpinfo中的各项信息是否正确。
     <?php
     phpinfo();
     ?>
    
     确认 PHP 能够正常工作后,在 php.ini 中进行设置提升 PHP 安全性,禁掉危险的函数.
     # vi /etc/php.ini找到:disable_functions
=设置为:phpinfo,passthru,exec,system,chroot,scandir,chgrp,chown,shell_exec,proc_open,proc_get_status,ini_alter,ini_alter,ini_restore,dl,pfsockopen,openlog,syslog,readlink,symlink,popepassthru,stream_socket_server

3)脚本自动完成初始化配置(以上配置可以用脚本自动化完成)
#cat init_apache_php.sh
  
代码:
-------------------cut begin-------------------------------------------
#!/bin/bash
#Written by :NetSeek http://www.linuxtone.org
#init_httpd.conf
http_cf="/usr/local/apache2/conf/httpd.conf"
sed -i -e "s/User daemon/User www/" -i -e "s/Group daemon/Group www/" $http_cf
sed -i -e '121 s/^/#/' -i -e '122 s/^/#/' $http_cf
sed -i 's#DirectoryIndex index.html# DirectoryIndex index.php index.html
index.htm#/g' $http_cf
sed -i -e '374 s/^#//g' -i -e '389 s/^#//g' -i -e '392 s/^#//g' -i -e '401
s/^#//g' $http_cf
#init_php(PHP安全设置及隐藏PHP版本)
php_cf="/usr/local/php/etc/php.ini"
sed -i '205 s#;open_basedir =#open_basedir = /data/www/wwwroot:/tmp#g' $php_cf
sed -i '210 s#disable_functions =#disable_functions =
phpinfo,passthru,exec,system,chroot,scandir,chgrp,chown,shell_exec,proc_open,proc_get_status,ini_alter,ini_alter,ini_restore,dl,pfsockopen,openlog,syslog,readlink,symlink,popepassthru,stream_socket_server#g'
$php_cf
sed -i '/expose_php/s/On/Off/' $php_cf
sed -i '/display_errors/s/On/Off/' $php_cf
-------------------cut end-------------------------------------------
   三、配置虚拟主机及基本性能调优
1) 配置虚拟主机:
#vi /usr/local/apache2/conf/extra/httpd-vhosts.conf
代码:
NameVirtualHost *:80

<VirtualHost *:80>
      ServerAdmin cnseek@gmail.com
      DocumentRoot "/data/www/wwwroot/linuxtone.org"
      ServerName www.linuxtone.org
      ServerAlias bbs.linxutone.org
      ErrorLog "logs/dummy-host.example.com-error_log"
      CustomLog "|/usr/sbin/cronolog /data/logs/access_www.linuxtone.org.%Y%m%d"
combined
</VirtualHost>2).基本性能调优参考:(更多的调优相关文章请关注:http://bbs.linuxtone.org/index.html性能调优相关的贴子)
#vi /usr/local/apache2/conf/extra/httpd-default.conf
复制内容到剪贴板
代码:
Timeout 15
KeepAlive Off
MaxKeepAliveRequests 50
KeepAliveTimeout 5
UseCanonicalName Off
AccessFileName .htaccess
ServerTokens Prod
ServerSignature Off
HostnameLookups Off
#vi /usr/local/apache2/conf/extra/httpd-mpm.conf
复制内容到剪贴板
代码:
<IfModule mpm_prefork_module>
      ServerLimit         2000
      StartServers          10
      MinSpareServers       10
      MaxSpareServers      15
      MaxClients          2000
      MaxRequestsPerChild   10000
</IfModule>
3).Apache日志处理相关问题汇总贴(http://bbs.linuxtone.org/thread-102-1-1.html)
     利用awstats分析网站日志:http://bbs.linuxtone.org/thread-56-1-1.html

     忽略不需要的日志配置参考具体请据据具体问题分析:
     LogFormat "%{X-Forwarded-For}i %l %u %t \"%r\" %>s %b \"%{Referer}i\"
\"%{User-Agent}i\"" combined
     #下面加入如下内容:
复制内容到剪贴板
代码:
      # filter the localhost visit
      SetEnvIf Remote_Addr "127\.0\.0\.1" dontlog
      # filter some special directories
      SetEnvIf Request_URI "^ZendPlatform.*$" dontlog
      SetEnvIf Request_URI \.healthcheck\.html$ dontlog
      SetEnvIf Remote_Addr "::1" dontlog
      SetEnvIf Request_URI "\.getPing.php$" dontlog
      SetEnvIf Request_URI "^/error\.html$" dontlog
      SetEnvIf Request_URI "\.gif$" dontlog
      SetEnvIf Request_URI "\.jpg$" dontlog
      SetEnvIf Request_URI "\.css$" dontlog
4). Apache防盗链(Apache防盗链相关问题汇总:http://bbs.linuxtone.org/thread-101-1-1.html)
复制内容到剪贴板
代码:
      RewriteEngine on
      RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} !^$
      RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} !^http://(www\.)?mydomain.com/.*$ [NC]
      RewriteRule \.(gif|jpg)$ http://网站域名/nolink.png [R,L]
四、基本安全设置
    1)iptables 封锁相关端口(推荐读CU白金大哥的两小时玩转iptables)
    2)SSH全安(修改SSH端口限制来源IP登陆,或者参考http://bbs.linuxtone.org/thread-106-1-1.html)
    3)Linux防Arp攻击策略(http://bbs.linuxtone.org/thread-41-1-1.html)
    4)注意(还是那句老话:安全工作从细节做起!)
  

posted on 2009-12-10 09:27 Documents 阅读(186) 评论(0)  编辑  收藏 所属分类: HibernateLinuxlampCentOS

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